Saturday, December 28, 2019
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press (United States Constitution 1789). Throughout the history of the United States of America, the Constitution has always been put to the test. The founders of this country created the first amendment to allow colonists to speak out against the British. In the 17th century, the press was accurate and informative with little competition among journalists. But today in the 21st century the circumstances are different and the stakes are higher. Due to the great level of competition among journalists today, the news is often exaggerated in order to capture a larger viewing audience.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦?The media can make us wiser, fuller, sure and sweeter than we are? (Orr 61). But, the media can also cloud the public?s judgments, and cause confusion and disillusion as well. From Churchill to Hitler to the former Soviet Union, it is quite clear that radio, television and newspapers have the power to change and make history. A clear example of the power of the media was when Orson Welles? made his famous radio broadcast about ?witnessing? the landing of a spaceship full of Martians. ?America saw that the power of the media could appeal to the public easily and cause mass hysteria? (Williams 25). Noam Chomsky, an established political thinker and magazine editor, stated in an interview in 1990: ?If you follow mainstream media with great care and skepticism and approach it with the right understanding of how propaganda works, then you can learn a lot. The normal reader is fooled into believing the propaganda that they are being fed. The media shapes and selects the events and offer their biased opinions to the mass audiences.? ?The media modifies information to fill what they believe the public?s interest is? (Szykowny 9). The media feels that they should act as a ?watchdog.? This causes many of the ethical problems among the media because they assume the responsibility of keeping a check on the government, by acting as governmental critics, governmental experts, etc. The media digs, researches, andShow MoreRelatedCensorship And The Media Of Censorship1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe same can be said about censorship. Censorship and privacy do not solely revolve around leaks and personal intrusions from foreign entities. The advent of social media and cell phones have created new avenues for people to communicate and share information; The internet provides people a new and global way to spread information that can be considered worthy of censorship. Many people I know argue that censorship should not be commonplace in the media, in social media, or even in the entire InternetRead MoreCensorship in the Media1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIs Censorship necessary? Ã¢â¬Å"Once a government is committed to the principle of silencing the voice of opposition, it has only one way to go, and that is down the path of increasingly repressive measures, until it becomes a source of terror to all its citizens and creates a country where everyone lives in fear. -- Harry S Truman Thesis: Although some people believe that censorship is adequate to select what things does the society will be good and can live around it while others believe that thereRead MoreMedia Censorship1427 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesApril 30, 2011 Media Censorship in the United States Censorship has existed for longer than we could ever imagine. One of the first acts of state sponsored censorship occurred in 399 B.C. when Socrates, was executed for the Ã¢â¬Å"supposed common good of the peopleÃ¢â¬ (Guarding Public Morality, 2010, p.1). Socrates was a teacher and a philosopher in ancient Greece. His teaching methods were controversial for the time, and he was charged with corrupting the youth and drawing them away from the GreekRead MoreCensorship of Media1064 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSurprises of Censorship In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world of technology and high finance children learn and do different activities. Video games, television shows, and the internet all have effect on our society. These items take away from moral values, and it also undermines the instruction parents give to their children. We need a healthier world with fewer restrictions, and if negative commodities are prohibiting children from recreational play parents should be the regulators in what content their childrenRead MoreThe Censorship Of The Media1542 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesBut while the larger media corporations may be hesitant to allow these other conceptions of the human to be represented in the mainstream, there is no such hesitation in fan communities. The fans are not and do not have to be concerned with Ã¢â¬Å"securing the well-being of our present ethnoclassÃ¢â¬ (Wynter). Rather, they are considered with their own well-being and their own representation and thus they are able to tell the stories that th ey want to be told and there is nothing preventing them from doingRead MoreThe Censorship Of The Media1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Privacy in the Media In addition, the media is in an especially complex situation regarding the current concept of privacy regarding the proper use of technology and due to the numerous ethical issues, that arise from sensationalist media practices. First, the invasion of privacy can be justified by uncovering vital information that serves public interest to be considered ethical journalistic practice (Plaisance, 2014, p. 187). However, while there is less ethical merit in providing the publicRead MoreThe Censorship Of The Media939 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesongoings of the world inform American policy and economics. Yet Americans remain ambivalent because other countries are not debated in the news. The news media implicitly apply filters to their coverage of news stories to inform the public thereby creating a narrative skewed by political or financial gain to influence their viewers. Because the media is privatized, it is difficult to recognize this propaganda system. Careful dissection of the time and sp ace dedicated to each story covered by the anchorsRead MoreThe Importance Of Media Censorship1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe government and the media must be able to publish uncensored information to the public about critical state issues, involving civil liberties and societal issues, for the collective well being and security. Despite the reputation of the society or a country, or having to violate ones civil liberties, it is not only justifiable but essential the public is provided with immediate, accurate and uncensored information. Media censorship has become a greater deal now than it ever was in centuriesRead MoreCensorship and Indecency in Media928 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCensorship and Indecency in Media Although indecent speech is protected by the First Amendment speech in broadcast media has been restricted because of its accessibility to children. In Federal Communications CommissionÃ¢â¬â¢s (FCC) current policy, indecent speech is defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"language that describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium, sexual or excretory activities and organs, at times of the day when there is a reasonable thatRead MoreCensorship in the Media Essay1084 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthe term censorship have been changed and manipulated very much over the years. Television and movie ratings have become more lenient against violence and indiscretion because these things are now seen as entertainment. Is this appropriate for our youth? Should children be exposed to these images so early on? How does censorship in the media affect adolescents? Children are the future of our society and need to have some understanding of real w orld occurrences. Ultimately, censorship can only
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Social networking sites create an unspoken competition between users which will cause them to experience low self-esteem. For instance, people compete for social capital: relationships with people among a society. Jacob Silverman stated, Ã¢â¬Å"If I donÃ¢â¬â¢t get ten faves in the first three minutes after tweeting something, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably just delete it, an amateur comedian told the wall street journalÃ¢â¬ ¦What the comedian really fears is the loss of followers and social capitalÃ¢â¬ (Silverman 25). When people post on social networking sites and their tweet, status, or picture doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t evoke a response within a certain amount of time the author will feel unnoticed by their peers. This Ã¢â¬Å"unnoticedÃ¢â¬ fear causes a decrease in self-esteem because the authorÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦A result of this is people are now constantly comparing themselves to others on social networking sites. When people begin comparing themselves to others it lowers the res pect they have for themselves and causes feelings of envy towards others. Social media is a false depiction of real life, and those who do not realize this will face a decline in their self-esteem. One reason for this is social media users have the option of filtering their profiles to appear perfect. According to Amy Gonzales and Jeffery Handcock, peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s social media accounts are a representation of who they are. People who compare their profiles to those who use filters on their profiles tend to experience a decrease in self-esteem (Gonzales and Handcock 82). The use of filtering is a feature of all social networking sites that allows users to create a false representation, a representation that is an illusion of who they really are. Although filtering can be as simple as deleting negative feedback from others, the most commonly seen case of filtering is when people use them on their photos to appear more beautiful. Too many people do not realize that their seemingly perfect image is not reality and try to compare themselves to something that is unachievable in the real world. This causes the people who do not edit their profiles to feel a decrease in their self-confidence. Social media causes people to generate fake connections which can easilyShow MoreRelatedSocial Media And Social Networking1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages105 Analysis 3 11-28-16 The meaning of social media is the utilization of electronic and portable advances to transform correspondence into an intuitive discourse. Social networking, then again, is a social structure with individuals who are joined by a typical intrigue. Obviously, now, the meaning of social media appears like a misrepresentation. In the most recent quite a while, innovation has brought us extremely distant from where we began and social media nearly appears as though it is a totallyRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1550 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSeveral advantages and disadvantages of social media such as Facebook or Twitter that Kent State students are use the purpose of social media and how often students are use social media. The social networking is a tool that is used by the people of modern world. The use of social networking is common in all parts of the world. The basic idea that revolves around the social networking site revolves around the purpose to promote and help to comm unicate with the world. However, the technology seemsRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking966 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSocial networking is the use of dedicated websites and applications to interact with other users, or to find people with similar interests to oneself (Oxford Dictionary). Social media includes the websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking (Oxford Dictionary). The world has seen an exponential growth in social media within the past decade that has truly transformed the way people interact. This originated from Compuserve in SeptemberRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking921 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSocial media is the communication between individuals and groups to share and exchange their ideas through internet. The social networking is part of social media which plays the important role in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The biggest impact of the social networking is on children, youngs, and adults. Now aday children are growing up surrounded by technology. They like to use technology such as mobile, tablets, and computers because they can connect easily to social network. We all know how important social networkingRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking Essay1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswould you be able to explain what the definition of Ã¢â¬Å"social mediaÃ¢â¬ is? Social media is the noun used to define websites that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking. Now you may wonder, what is the difference in social media and social networking? Ã¢â¬Å"Social networking is the practice of expanding the number of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s business and/or social contacts by making connections through individuals, often through social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and InstagramRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe first email was delivered, social media has taken the world by a storm with millions of demogr aphic groups choosing to connect through social networking platforms that facilitate a multifaceted level of online communication. As of May 2011, Facebook was named the number one social networking site with over one billion users and 864 million daily active users (Satici Uysal, 2015, p.185). The surging popularity of Facebook, which was designed to foster social interaction, is unprecedented. ConverselyRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWithin the past decade, social media usage has increased exponentially, especially amongst adolescents (Blease, 2015). The emergence of social networking sites has provided society with a fast and convenient way to stay in contact with family, friends and even acquaintances. Major social networking sites allows individuals who in the past would have lost touch a front seat to every major life milestone with a simple click of a button. Adolescents being raised today are openly embracing this newRead MoreSocia l Media And Social Networking875 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesrelationship with that person. Facebook and other social networks give us the ability to interact and keep up to date on the daily lives of our close friends and acquaintances. Fisher comments on this phenomenon: Ã¢â¬Å"Today, our number of weak-tie acquaintances has exploded via online social networking. Ã¢â¬ËYou couldn t maintain all of those weak ties on your own,Ã¢â¬â¢ says Jennifer Golbeck at the University of Maryland in College Park, who studies our use of social media. Ã¢â¬ËFacebook gives you a way of cataloguingRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1253 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Have you ever heard of the contagious disease called social networking. Once you get a glimpse of any of the social media websites, youÃ¢â¬â¢re pretty much creating a custom made trashcan to throw your education in, a fire to burn your job into ashes, and the list goes on. Social networking is used in a way where studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ education is second from their list next to staying updated in friends, family, and even strangersÃ¢â¬â¢ life. With these habits developed, they bring it into their jobs like McdonaldsRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1485 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIV. Generations in the Workforce The fast paced evolution of social media and social networking has required businesses to quickly adapt to avoid falling behind their competition and their customers. A unique feature of the evolving workplace is that entire corporations are involved, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not only the younger generation or only the experienced generation but rather, it affects everyone. This new frontier adds value in many ways including faster service, more direct customer feedback, as well as
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
Corporate Influence on our Political System Anthony Wade Dr. Donatus Uzomah English 215 June 4, 2011 Corporate Influence on our Political System The American political system is built on simple but revolutionary principles from our founding Fathers. These principles state that self-governance is an absolute right and the governments purpose is to serve the interests of the people. Characteristics which are essential to a healthy, functioning democracy.But America has stumbled upon a formidable roadblock to the realization of our founding fathers dream, as Lincoln said, of a country that is of the people, by the people and for the people( Citizens at Work, 2003). There are many factors that distort this reality and the main culprit is the multi- national corporations that are stealing the voices of the people which threatens the interest of American citizens. A good example would be how banking and oil interests have used lobbyists to limit regulatory over site in their prospective industries. Their undue influence has resulted in the biggest financial and environmental disasters in our nations history. The following is an overview of the history of corporate interests, the impact that corporate influence has on the Democratic process and society as a whole. In recent years, corporate influence on our government has dramatically increased. Corporations represented by special interest groups and lobbyists have increased substantially, along with their influence on politicians.This undue influence has given the appearance that the government is now more representative of corporate interests than those of the people it is suppose to represent. The result has been a disparity in wealth between the rich and poor which is now at its highest rates in American history, and still growing. As you will see, the influence and power yielded by the corporations have been detrimental to our democracy. This has not always been the case.In the early history of the United States, corporations had very little influence over government or elections. Corporations required a charter to exist which placed limitations on what it could and could not do. That all changed in 1886 with the Supreme Court decision in the case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad. This ruling , based on the Fourteenth Amendment that protects the rights of freed slaves, gave corporations the rights of a person (Shah, 2002). Which meant that they were now afforded protections under the Constitution.This also meant, that corporations were afforded all the opportunities of individual citizens, such as the right to purchase land, and influence the government in their own interests, among other things (Shah, 2002). The result was, corporations could use the same constitutional rights as citizens to challenge attempts to their power. The fact that corporations were granted same rights as a person, would seem unconstitutional. According to the Thirteenth Amendment, Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exists.If this is true then how can a corporation be owned shareholders and still be constitutional. Shareholders own corporations and corporations own corporations, so if in fact a corporation was a person, to maintain its corporate structure, slavery would have to be made constitutional. The importance of this new corporate status of personhood cannot be overstated, corporations gained constitutional rights of free speech, protections from search and seizure and freedom from discrimination. All of which, can manifest itself into legalized corporate abuses (Citizens at Work, 2003).As stated by Richard Robins in, Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism, the Supreme Court ruling of 1886, set the stage for full scale development of capitalism, by handing to corporations the right to use their economic power in a way they never had before. A more recent Supreme Court ruling in Citizens v. Federal Election Committee affirmed more power for corporations to influence the electoral process, even more than they already had. Corporations are now able to spend unlimited sums of money in the electoral process by funding political commercials and other propaganda to use for or against a candidate.Campaign donations and lobbying are other methods used by corporations to influence government officials and policy. A good example, in the election cycle of 2000, there was an estimated $1. 2 billion given to congressional campaigns in both parties, by corporations. . Unless you are rich, it is nearly impossible to run a viable congressional campaign without corporate financial backing, since their donations make up about 75% of the money that candidates receive . In the most recent election, the candidate who raised the most money won 94% of the time (Citizens at Work, 2003).Without corporate money, it is very difficult for politicians to win elections and maintain their office. Once elected, politicians are inundated with constant reminders from lobbyists, of whose money helped elect them. According to the Office of Public Records, in 2009 there were almost 14,000 lobbyists who were supported by $3. 5 billion of corporate money (geekacademy. com, 2010). With the combination of lobbyists and political donations, corporations are able to pressure politicians to help frame issues that are more favorable to them.And at the same time, keeping critical issues from being brought before Congress which those corporations are against. Political donations and corporate lobbying have proved to be an excellent investment for corporations due to the billions in tax breaks and subsidies they receive yearly. The Department of Treasury estimates that between $70 and $155 billion disappears into the Bermuda Triangle of off shore tax havens each year (Citizens at Work, 2003).A decline in corporate taxes means less revenue for the federal budget and places the burden of making up that revenue on the US workers, through payroll taxes. How do corporations use lobbyists to influence policy decisions in Congress? Lobbyists depend on special relationships they have with members of Congress and the Executive Branch. They maintain these special relationships by keeping in regular contact with key individuals, and having served in the government themselves, lobbyists may have worked with the very same people they are now lobbying. These relationships give them valuable insight into the inner workings of how things get accomplished in government. A good example is, there is a high demand for retired members of the House or Senate to serves as lobbyists for major corporations. These retired members of Congress know the laws and regulation relating to their new employers industry, and they know the inner dealings that went into making those laws. Whats more, former representatives and senators maintain the privilege of going on to the floor of their old chambers.That means that during a vote on a bill, they can go on the floor and lobby current senators or representatives as the case may be. No other lobbyists can do this. So these former legislators have a greater ability to influence the process than someone who doesnt have the privilege of the floor, or the other connections they do. Thus ex-senators and ex-representatives are often valued as lobbyists (Triebwasser, 1998). Many corporations use their government influences to manipulate free trade agreements, so they can enter into international markets that have little regulation and even less monitoring.Corporations use trade agreements to circumvent national safety and environmental standards by claiming these are barriers to free trade. The problem is, this not only reduces our sovereignty, but is a danger to our democracy, as well. A good example would be NAFTA, which has been devastating to the safety of workers and has lessened environment protections on corporations. During its negotiations, human and labor rights, environment protections, and democratic accountability were consciously excluded (Citizens at Work, 2003).The result was the loss of hundreds of thousands of manufacturing jobs, suppressed real wages and reduced worker benefits. Corporations on the other hand, have saved billions on labor costs and costly environmental regulations and have effectively canceled their social contact with the public. Jeff Faux writes in the American Prospect, NAFTA thus represents the most extreme example of the so-called neoliberal model, in which supranational rules liberate the private corporate investor from the constraint of democratic public values (Faux, 2003).The general purpose of why corporations exist, is to maximize shareholder value. This economic imperative translates into, corporations will do whatever it takes to maximize their gains while externalizing all possible costs onto society. The result has been that workers and the environment have become the victims of corporate irresponsibility. With the recent wave of corporate mergers, wealth has been consolidated down to a small number of corporations. In fact, 51 of the worlds 100 largest economies are corporations, while only 49 are countries (see Appendix B). The result is that unaccountable corporations and corporate dominated institutions like the IMF, World Bank and the WTO have more power and influence over governments than the country themselves (Triebwasser, 1998). There is a growing sentiment that a majority of Americans believe there should be less corporate influence on government. According to a recent Gallop poll (see Appendix A), The large majority of Americans (62%) want major corporations to have less influence in the United States.While this is down from a peak of 68% in 2008, it remains well above the 52% recorded in 2001. Relatively few Americans would prefer to see corporations gain influence, but the 12% recorded this year is the highest to date (Saad, 2011). Voters have pushed back against the Supreme Court decision in Citizens United, which took away government power to limit campaign donations and effectively overturned laws in 24 states that banned political expenditures from corporations. Legislative initiatives no w require that corporations have shareholder approval of corporate political spending. Other voter tactics include referendums supporting an anti-corporate personhood amendment to the Constitution, which would take away corporations rights as a person. And encouraging shareholders to adopt resolutions for corporations to adopt corporate accountability. Fighting to ensure that public officials are independent of corporate influence and are beholden only to their voting constituents, activists and public interest advocates throughout the twentieth century have championed various campaign finance reforms aimed at curbing corporate influence in government.Since the Supreme Court decision allowing expanded opportunities for corporations to contribute to election campaigns, the debate surrounding political donations has become increasingly visible and the necessity for reform clear to the public. Theodore Roosevelt once said, let us prohibit in effective fashion all corporations from making contributions for political purpose, directly or indirectly. It is up to the people t o decide if they wish to live in a democracy or a plutocracy (Citizens at Work, 2003). Political finance reform is needed to prevent corporations from benefiting from political donations. Eliminating corporate money from the electoral process is one of the reforms that can help eliminate corporate influence of government. The ultimate goal of campaign finance reform is to move to full public financing of federal and state elections. Two thirds of Americans favor public financing of election campaigns, if it means eliminating corporate and special interest money. A conservative estimate in fixing the political system by removing corporate money and replacing it with taxpayer dollars, is about $5. 2 billion a year, representing one tenth of one percent of federal revenue (Sayles, 2010).Corporate influence would be seriously in the political system would be seriously curtailed, making it possible for solid candidates from all backgrounds to compete. Appendix A The new data come from a Jan. 7-9 Gallup poll. The same survey found 67% of Americans dissatisfied with the size and influence of major corporations in the country today, the highest level since Gallup first asked this question in 2001. Of seven aspects of the United States rated in the poll, Americans are the least satisfied with corporate influence. Appendix BThe following are collected from a report by the Institute for Policy Studies. The report is called Top 200: The Rise of Corporate Global Power. Over time, additional facts and stats will be added from other sources as well. 1. Of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations; only 49 are countries (based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs). 2. The Top 200 corporations sales are growing at a faster rate than overall global economic activity. Between 1983 and 1999, their combined sales grew from the equivalent of 25. 0 percent to 27. 5 percent of World GDP. 3. The Top 200 corporations combined sales are bigger than the combined economies of all countries minus the biggest 10. 4. The Top 200s combined sales are 18 times the size of the combined annual income of the 1. 2 billion people (24 percent of the total world population) living in severe poverty. 5. While the sales of the Top 200 are the equivalent of 27. 5 percent of world economic activity, they employ only 0. 78 percent of the worlds workforce. 6. Between 1983 and 1999, the profits of the Top 200 firms grew 362. 4 percent, while the number of people they employ grew by only 14. 4 percent. 7.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Madame Bovary Emma Bovary, scorned, pitiful, and unsatisfied searches for happiness though wealth and sundry lovers, as the main character in Gustave Flaubert's novel Madame Bovary. Emma is not the first character to be presented, but Charles Bovary, Emma's husband opens the piece. The beginning has a major symbol which foreshadows Charles's attitude throughout the story. As a child, he walks into a new classroom with a horrifyingly grotesque hat upon his head and the other pupil's tease him about it. They keep knocking the hat off his head, and when Charles is told to remove his hat, he ignores the tradition of throwing it and making the dust go haywire. This incident gives the audience an inside track in the young Charles' head. Basically, Charles is a passive, submissive person. This personality turns Emma into the embracing arms of two lovers. By marrying the wrong man, Emma acts upon what she believes is proper instead of doing what she wants to do. She is not true to her emotions and because of this she lives very unhappily. As Emma proves in this book, people should follow their heart and not worry so much about doing the "right thing." Emma says, "one must to some extent, bow to the opinion of the world, and except it's moral code," which is exactly what she did her whole life. Ironically, she says this and later pays for it for doing what others expected of her, instead of doing what she wanted. In desperation to get away from the zombie-like husband, she flees to Rodolphe Boulanger - a man with enough aggressiveness for a fleet of women. One man watches her and exclaims, "she is tired of him, no doubt, she's gaping after love like a carp after water on a kitchen-table." But, as Emma is scorned by each affair, she falls upon her human pillow, Charles. She continually tries to prove her innocence; so, she keeps her love from him and his idolatry. Some supporting incidents include the time when she hit her child, Berthe, and then told her husband that the kid cut her cheek. Another example is when Emma is about to have an affair with Leon, she starts acting like a good wife, a good mother-to-be, and she attends church. When Emma finally gives birth, it is to a girl, named Berthe at 6 a.m. on a Sunday morning. Through out the labor process, Emma was wanting a male descendent. "A man, at least, is free. He can explore passions and countries, surmount obstacles, taste the most exotic pleasures." Her justification is clearly stating the opposite: "But a woman is continually held back. Inert and flexible at the same time, she has both the susceptibilities of the flesh and legal restrictions against her." The birth symbolizes a new beginning. Six a.m. in the morning is the "birth of day", standard sunrise time, and Sunday is a holy day. Since on the seventh day God rested, he created man to live in his world that was made. Now, Berthe has to live in the isolated, misery-addicted world her mother has created for her; because Emma is so engulfed in herself, she brings her daughter down with her. Emma condemns Berthe from then on to live in her own personal inferno. With her mother's pitiful, pathetic, easy-way-out death, Berthe will escape Emma's grasp upon her non-existent, not-yet-formed childhood. Her death freed her husband from his agony of loving her; she freed Leon Dupuis to marry a Mademoiselle; and Rodolphe to fulfill his need for many lovers. Written in the nineteenth century, Gustave Flaubert uses the theme of freedom of one's self and romance to highlight this era.