Saturday, December 28, 2019

Censorship in Media Essay - 2359 Words

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press (United States Constitution 1789). Throughout the history of the United States of America, the Constitution has always been put to the test. The founders of this country created the first amendment to allow colonists to speak out against the British. In the 17th century, the press was accurate and informative with little competition among journalists. But today in the 21st century the circumstances are different and the stakes are higher. Due to the great level of competition among journalists today, the news is often exaggerated in order to capture a larger viewing audience.†¦show more content†¦?The media can make us wiser, fuller, sure and sweeter than we are? (Orr 61). But, the media can also cloud the public?s judgments, and cause confusion and disillusion as well. From Churchill to Hitler to the former Soviet Union, it is quite clear that radio, television and newspapers have the power to change and make history. A clear example of the power of the media was when Orson Welles? made his famous radio broadcast about ?witnessing? the landing of a spaceship full of Martians. ?America saw that the power of the media could appeal to the public easily and cause mass hysteria? (Williams 25). Noam Chomsky, an established political thinker and magazine editor, stated in an interview in 1990: ?If you follow mainstream media with great care and skepticism and approach it with the right understanding of how propaganda works, then you can learn a lot. The normal reader is fooled into believing the propaganda that they are being fed. The media shapes and selects the events and offer their biased opinions to the mass audiences.? ?The media modifies information to fill what they believe the public?s interest is? (Szykowny 9). The media feels that they should act as a ?watchdog.? This causes many of the ethical problems among the media because they assume the responsibility of keeping a check on the government, by acting as governmental critics, governmental experts, etc. The media digs, researches, andShow MoreRelatedCensorship And The Media Of Censorship1407 Words   |  6 Pagesthe same can be said about censorship. Censorship and privacy do not solely revolve around leaks and personal intrusions from foreign entities. The advent of social media and cell phones have created new avenues for people to communicate and share information; The internet provides people a new and global way to spread information that can be considered worthy of censorship. Many people I know argue that censorship should not be commonplace in the media, in social media, or even in the entire InternetRead MoreCensorship in the Media1115 Words   |  5 PagesIs Censorship necessary? â€Å"Once a government is committed to the principle of silencing the voice of opposition, it has only one way to go, and that is down the path of increasingly repressive measures, until it becomes a source of terror to all its citizens and creates a country where everyone lives in fear. -- Harry S Truman Thesis: Although some people believe that censorship is adequate to select what things does the society will be good and can live around it while others believe that thereRead MoreMedia Censorship1427 Words   |  6 PagesApril 30, 2011 Media Censorship in the United States Censorship has existed for longer than we could ever imagine. One of the first acts of state sponsored censorship occurred in 399 B.C. when Socrates, was executed for the â€Å"supposed common good of the people† (Guarding Public Morality, 2010, p.1). Socrates was a teacher and a philosopher in ancient Greece. His teaching methods were controversial for the time, and he was charged with corrupting the youth and drawing them away from the GreekRead MoreCensorship of Media1064 Words   |  5 PagesSurprises of Censorship In today’s world of technology and high finance children learn and do different activities. Video games, television shows, and the internet all have effect on our society. These items take away from moral values, and it also undermines the instruction parents give to their children. We need a healthier world with fewer restrictions, and if negative commodities are prohibiting children from recreational play parents should be the regulators in what content their childrenRead MoreThe Censorship Of The Media1542 Words   |  7 PagesBut while the larger media corporations may be hesitant to allow these other conceptions of the human to be represented in the mainstream, there is no such hesitation in fan communities. The fans are not and do not have to be concerned with â€Å"securing the well-being of our present ethnoclass† (Wynter). Rather, they are considered with their own well-being and their own representation and thus they are able to tell the stories that th ey want to be told and there is nothing preventing them from doingRead MoreThe Censorship Of The Media1665 Words   |  7 Pages Privacy in the Media In addition, the media is in an especially complex situation regarding the current concept of privacy regarding the proper use of technology and due to the numerous ethical issues, that arise from sensationalist media practices. First, the invasion of privacy can be justified by uncovering vital information that serves public interest to be considered ethical journalistic practice (Plaisance, 2014, p. 187). However, while there is less ethical merit in providing the publicRead MoreThe Censorship Of The Media939 Words   |  4 Pagesongoings of the world inform American policy and economics. Yet Americans remain ambivalent because other countries are not debated in the news. The news media implicitly apply filters to their coverage of news stories to inform the public thereby creating a narrative skewed by political or financial gain to influence their viewers. Because the media is privatized, it is difficult to recognize this propaganda system. Careful dissection of the time and sp ace dedicated to each story covered by the anchorsRead MoreThe Importance Of Media Censorship1013 Words   |  5 PagesThe government and the media must be able to publish uncensored information to the public about critical state issues, involving civil liberties and societal issues, for the collective well being and security. Despite the reputation of the society or a country, or having to violate ones civil liberties, it is not only justifiable but essential the public is provided with immediate, accurate and uncensored information. Media censorship has become a greater deal now than it ever was in centuriesRead MoreCensorship and Indecency in Media928 Words   |  4 PagesCensorship and Indecency in Media Although indecent speech is protected by the First Amendment speech in broadcast media has been restricted because of its accessibility to children. In Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) current policy, indecent speech is defined as the â€Å"language that describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium, sexual or excretory activities and organs, at times of the day when there is a reasonable thatRead MoreCensorship in the Media Essay1084 Words   |  5 Pagesthe term censorship have been changed and manipulated very much over the years. Television and movie ratings have become more lenient against violence and indiscretion because these things are now seen as entertainment. Is this appropriate for our youth? Should children be exposed to these images so early on? How does censorship in the media affect adolescents? Children are the future of our society and need to have some understanding of real w orld occurrences. Ultimately, censorship can only

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Social Networking And Social Media - 1301 Words

Social networking sites create an unspoken competition between users which will cause them to experience low self-esteem. For instance, people compete for social capital: relationships with people among a society. Jacob Silverman stated, â€Å"If I don’t get ten faves in the first three minutes after tweeting something, I’ll probably just delete it, an amateur comedian told the wall street journal†¦What the comedian really fears is the loss of followers and social capital† (Silverman 25). When people post on social networking sites and their tweet, status, or picture doesn’t evoke a response within a certain amount of time the author will feel unnoticed by their peers. This â€Å"unnoticed† fear causes a decrease in self-esteem because the author†¦show more content†¦A result of this is people are now constantly comparing themselves to others on social networking sites. When people begin comparing themselves to others it lowers the res pect they have for themselves and causes feelings of envy towards others. Social media is a false depiction of real life, and those who do not realize this will face a decline in their self-esteem. One reason for this is social media users have the option of filtering their profiles to appear perfect. According to Amy Gonzales and Jeffery Handcock, people’s social media accounts are a representation of who they are. People who compare their profiles to those who use filters on their profiles tend to experience a decrease in self-esteem (Gonzales and Handcock 82). The use of filtering is a feature of all social networking sites that allows users to create a false representation, a representation that is an illusion of who they really are. Although filtering can be as simple as deleting negative feedback from others, the most commonly seen case of filtering is when people use them on their photos to appear more beautiful. Too many people do not realize that their seemingly perfect image is not reality and try to compare themselves to something that is unachievable in the real world. This causes the people who do not edit their profiles to feel a decrease in their self-confidence. Social media causes people to generate fake connections which can easilyShow MoreRelatedSocial Media And Social Networking1431 Words   |  6 Pages105 Analysis 3 11-28-16 The meaning of social media is the utilization of electronic and portable advances to transform correspondence into an intuitive discourse. Social networking, then again, is a social structure with individuals who are joined by a typical intrigue. Obviously, now, the meaning of social media appears like a misrepresentation. In the most recent quite a while, innovation has brought us extremely distant from where we began and social media nearly appears as though it is a totallyRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1550 Words   |  7 PagesSeveral advantages and disadvantages of social media such as Facebook or Twitter that Kent State students are use the purpose of social media and how often students are use social media. The social networking is a tool that is used by the people of modern world. The use of social networking is common in all parts of the world. The basic idea that revolves around the social networking site revolves around the purpose to promote and help to comm unicate with the world. However, the technology seemsRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking966 Words   |  4 PagesSocial networking is the use of dedicated websites and applications to interact with other users, or to find people with similar interests to oneself (Oxford Dictionary). Social media includes the websites and applications that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking (Oxford Dictionary). The world has seen an exponential growth in social media within the past decade that has truly transformed the way people interact. This originated from Compuserve in SeptemberRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking921 Words   |  4 PagesSocial media is the communication between individuals and groups to share and exchange their ideas through internet. The social networking is part of social media which plays the important role in today’s life. The biggest impact of the social networking is on children, youngs, and adults. Now aday children are growing up surrounded by technology. They like to use technology such as mobile, tablets, and computers because they can connect easily to social network. We all know how important social networkingRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking Essay1109 Words   |  5 Pageswould you be able to explain what the definition of â€Å"social media† is? Social media is the noun used to define websites that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking. Now you may wonder, what is the difference in social media and social networking? â€Å"Social networking is the practice of expanding the number of one’s business and/or social contacts by making connections through individuals, often through social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Google+ and InstagramRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1459 Words   |  6 Pagesthe first email was delivered, social media has taken the world by a storm with millions of demogr aphic groups choosing to connect through social networking platforms that facilitate a multifaceted level of online communication. As of May 2011, Facebook was named the number one social networking site with over one billion users and 864 million daily active users (Satici Uysal, 2015, p.185). The surging popularity of Facebook, which was designed to foster social interaction, is unprecedented. ConverselyRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1688 Words   |  7 PagesWithin the past decade, social media usage has increased exponentially, especially amongst adolescents (Blease, 2015). The emergence of social networking sites has provided society with a fast and convenient way to stay in contact with family, friends and even acquaintances. Major social networking sites allows individuals who in the past would have lost touch a front seat to every major life milestone with a simple click of a button. Adolescents being raised today are openly embracing this newRead MoreSocia l Media And Social Networking875 Words   |  4 Pagesrelationship with that person. Facebook and other social networks give us the ability to interact and keep up to date on the daily lives of our close friends and acquaintances. Fisher comments on this phenomenon: â€Å"Today, our number of weak-tie acquaintances has exploded via online social networking. ‘You couldn t maintain all of those weak ties on your own,’ says Jennifer Golbeck at the University of Maryland in College Park, who studies our use of social media. ‘Facebook gives you a way of cataloguingRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1253 Words   |  6 Pages Have you ever heard of the contagious disease called social networking. Once you get a glimpse of any of the social media websites, you’re pretty much creating a custom made trashcan to throw your education in, a fire to burn your job into ashes, and the list goes on. Social networking is used in a way where students’ education is second from their list next to staying updated in friends, family, and even strangers’ life. With these habits developed, they bring it into their jobs like McdonaldsRead MoreSocial Media And Social Networking1485 Words   |  6 PagesIV. Generations in the Workforce The fast paced evolution of social media and social networking has required businesses to quickly adapt to avoid falling behind their competition and their customers. A unique feature of the evolving workplace is that entire corporations are involved, it’s not only the younger generation or only the experienced generation but rather, it affects everyone. This new frontier adds value in many ways including faster service, more direct customer feedback, as well as

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Corporate Influence on Our Political System free essay sample

Corporate Influence on our Political System Anthony Wade Dr. Donatus Uzomah English 215 June 4, 2011 Corporate Influence on our Political System The American political system is built on simple but revolutionary principles from our founding Fathers. These principles state that self-governance is an absolute right and the governments purpose is to serve the interests of the people. Characteristics which are essential to a healthy, functioning democracy.But America has stumbled upon a formidable roadblock to the realization of our founding fathers dream, as Lincoln said, of a country that is of the people, by the people and for the people( Citizens at Work, 2003). There are many factors that distort this reality and the main culprit is the multi- national corporations that are stealing the voices of the people which threatens the interest of American citizens. A good example would be how banking and oil interests have used lobbyists to limit regulatory over site in their prospective industries. Their undue influence has resulted in the biggest financial and environmental disasters in our nations history. The following is an overview of the history of corporate interests, the impact that corporate influence has on the Democratic process and society as a whole. In recent years, corporate influence on our government has dramatically increased. Corporations represented by special interest groups and lobbyists have increased substantially, along with their influence on politicians.This undue influence has given the appearance that the government is now more representative of corporate interests than those of the people it is suppose to represent. The result has been a disparity in wealth between the rich and poor which is now at its highest rates in American history, and still growing. As you will see, the influence and power yielded by the corporations have been detrimental to our democracy. This has not always been the case.In the early history of the United States, corporations had very little influence over government or elections. Corporations required a charter to exist which placed limitations on what it could and could not do. That all changed in 1886 with the Supreme Court decision in the case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad. This ruling , based on the Fourteenth Amendment that protects the rights of freed slaves, gave corporations the rights of a person (Shah, 2002). Which meant that they were now afforded protections under the Constitution.This also meant, that corporations were afforded all the opportunities of individual citizens, such as the right to purchase land, and influence the government in their own interests, among other things (Shah, 2002). The result was, corporations could use the same constitutional rights as citizens to challenge attempts to their power. The fact that corporations were granted same rights as a person, would seem unconstitutional. According to the Thirteenth Amendment, Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude shall exists.If this is true then how can a corporation be owned shareholders and still be constitutional. Shareholders own corporations and corporations own corporations, so if in fact a corporation was a person, to maintain its corporate structure, slavery would have to be made constitutional. The importance of this new corporate status of personhood cannot be overstated, corporations gained constitutional rights of free speech, protections from search and seizure and freedom from discrimination. All of which, can manifest itself into legalized corporate abuses (Citizens at Work, 2003).As stated by Richard Robins in, Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism, the Supreme Court ruling of 1886, set the stage for full scale development of capitalism, by handing to corporations the right to use their economic power in a way they never had before. A more recent Supreme Court ruling in Citizens v. Federal Election Committee affirmed more power for corporations to influence the electoral process, even more than they already had. Corporations are now able to spend unlimited sums of money in the electoral process by funding political commercials and other propaganda to use for or against a candidate.Campaign donations and lobbying are other methods used by corporations to influence government officials and policy. A good example, in the election cycle of 2000, there was an estimated $1. 2 billion given to congressional campaigns in both parties, by corporations. . Unless you are rich, it is nearly impossible to run a viable congressional campaign without corporate financial backing, since their donations make up about 75% of the money that candidates receive . In the most recent election, the candidate who raised the most money won 94% of the time (Citizens at Work, 2003).Without corporate money, it is very difficult for politicians to win elections and maintain their office. Once elected, politicians are inundated with constant reminders from lobbyists, of whose money helped elect them. According to the Office of Public Records, in 2009 there were almost 14,000 lobbyists who were supported by $3. 5 billion of corporate money (geekacademy. com, 2010). With the combination of lobbyists and political donations, corporations are able to pressure politicians to help frame issues that are more favorable to them.And at the same time, keeping critical issues from being brought before Congress which those corporations are against. Political donations and corporate lobbying have proved to be an excellent investment for corporations due to the billions in tax breaks and subsidies they receive yearly. The Department of Treasury estimates that between $70 and $155 billion disappears into the Bermuda Triangle of off shore tax havens each year (Citizens at Work, 2003).A decline in corporate taxes means less revenue for the federal budget and places the burden of making up that revenue on the US workers, through payroll taxes. How do corporations use lobbyists to influence policy decisions in Congress? Lobbyists depend on special relationships they have with members of Congress and the Executive Branch. They maintain these special relationships by keeping in regular contact with key individuals, and having served in the government themselves, lobbyists may have worked with the very same people they are now lobbying. These relationships give them valuable insight into the inner workings of how things get accomplished in government. A good example is, there is a high demand for retired members of the House or Senate to serves as lobbyists for major corporations. These retired members of Congress know the laws and regulation relating to their new employers industry, and they know the inner dealings that went into making those laws. Whats more, former representatives and senators maintain the privilege of going on to the floor of their old chambers.That means that during a vote on a bill, they can go on the floor and lobby current senators or representatives as the case may be. No other lobbyists can do this. So these former legislators have a greater ability to influence the process than someone who doesnt have the privilege of the floor, or the other connections they do. Thus ex-senators and ex-representatives are often valued as lobbyists (Triebwasser, 1998). Many corporations use their government influences to manipulate free trade agreements, so they can enter into international markets that have little regulation and even less monitoring.Corporations use trade agreements to circumvent national safety and environmental standards by claiming these are barriers to free trade. The problem is, this not only reduces our sovereignty, but is a danger to our democracy, as well. A good example would be NAFTA, which has been devastating to the safety of workers and has lessened environment protections on corporations. During its negotiations, human and labor rights, environment protections, and democratic accountability were consciously excluded (Citizens at Work, 2003).The result was the loss of hundreds of thousands of manufacturing jobs, suppressed real wages and reduced worker benefits. Corporations on the other hand, have saved billions on labor costs and costly environmental regulations and have effectively canceled their social contact with the public. Jeff Faux writes in the American Prospect, NAFTA thus represents the most extreme example of the so-called neoliberal model, in which supranational rules liberate the private corporate investor from the constraint of democratic public values (Faux, 2003).The general purpose of why corporations exist, is to maximize shareholder value. This economic imperative translates into, corporations will do whatever it takes to maximize their gains while externalizing all possible costs onto society. The result has been that workers and the environment have become the victims of corporate irresponsibility. With the recent wave of corporate mergers, wealth has been consolidated down to a small number of corporations. In fact, 51 of the worlds 100 largest economies are corporations, while only 49 are countries (see Appendix B). The result is that unaccountable corporations and corporate dominated institutions like the IMF, World Bank and the WTO have more power and influence over governments than the country themselves (Triebwasser, 1998). There is a growing sentiment that a majority of Americans believe there should be less corporate influence on government. According to a recent Gallop poll (see Appendix A), The large majority of Americans (62%) want major corporations to have less influence in the United States.While this is down from a peak of 68% in 2008, it remains well above the 52% recorded in 2001. Relatively few Americans would prefer to see corporations gain influence, but the 12% recorded this year is the highest to date (Saad, 2011). Voters have pushed back against the Supreme Court decision in Citizens United, which took away government power to limit campaign donations and effectively overturned laws in 24 states that banned political expenditures from corporations. Legislative initiatives no w require that corporations have shareholder approval of corporate political spending. Other voter tactics include referendums supporting an anti-corporate personhood amendment to the Constitution, which would take away corporations rights as a person. And encouraging shareholders to adopt resolutions for corporations to adopt corporate accountability. Fighting to ensure that public officials are independent of corporate influence and are beholden only to their voting constituents, activists and public interest advocates throughout the twentieth century have championed various campaign finance reforms aimed at curbing corporate influence in government.Since the Supreme Court decision allowing expanded opportunities for corporations to contribute to election campaigns, the debate surrounding political donations has become increasingly visible and the necessity for reform clear to the public. Theodore Roosevelt once said, let us prohibit in effective fashion all corporations from making contributions for political purpose, directly or indirectly. It is up to the people t o decide if they wish to live in a democracy or a plutocracy (Citizens at Work, 2003). Political finance reform is needed to prevent corporations from benefiting from political donations. Eliminating corporate money from the electoral process is one of the reforms that can help eliminate corporate influence of government. The ultimate goal of campaign finance reform is to move to full public financing of federal and state elections. Two thirds of Americans favor public financing of election campaigns, if it means eliminating corporate and special interest money. A conservative estimate in fixing the political system by removing corporate money and replacing it with taxpayer dollars, is about $5. 2 billion a year, representing one tenth of one percent of federal revenue (Sayles, 2010).Corporate influence would be seriously in the political system would be seriously curtailed, making it possible for solid candidates from all backgrounds to compete. Appendix A The new data come from a Jan. 7-9 Gallup poll. The same survey found 67% of Americans dissatisfied with the size and influence of major corporations in the country today, the highest level since Gallup first asked this question in 2001. Of seven aspects of the United States rated in the poll, Americans are the least satisfied with corporate influence. Appendix BThe following are collected from a report by the Institute for Policy Studies. The report is called Top 200: The Rise of Corporate Global Power. Over time, additional facts and stats will be added from other sources as well. 1. Of the 100 largest economies in the world, 51 are corporations; only 49 are countries (based on a comparison of corporate sales and country GDPs). 2. The Top 200 corporations sales are growing at a faster rate than overall global economic activity. Between 1983 and 1999, their combined sales grew from the equivalent of 25. 0 percent to 27. 5 percent of World GDP. 3. The Top 200 corporations combined sales are bigger than the combined economies of all countries minus the biggest 10. 4. The Top 200s combined sales are 18 times the size of the combined annual income of the 1. 2 billion people (24 percent of the total world population) living in severe poverty. 5. While the sales of the Top 200 are the equivalent of 27. 5 percent of world economic activity, they employ only 0. 78 percent of the worlds workforce. 6. Between 1983 and 1999, the profits of the Top 200 firms grew 362. 4 percent, while the number of people they employ grew by only 14. 4 percent. 7.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Madame Bovary Essays (628 words) - Madame Bovary, Birth, Emma

Madame Bovary Emma Bovary, scorned, pitiful, and unsatisfied searches for happiness though wealth and sundry lovers, as the main character in Gustave Flaubert's novel Madame Bovary. Emma is not the first character to be presented, but Charles Bovary, Emma's husband opens the piece. The beginning has a major symbol which foreshadows Charles's attitude throughout the story. As a child, he walks into a new classroom with a horrifyingly grotesque hat upon his head and the other pupil's tease him about it. They keep knocking the hat off his head, and when Charles is told to remove his hat, he ignores the tradition of throwing it and making the dust go haywire. This incident gives the audience an inside track in the young Charles' head. Basically, Charles is a passive, submissive person. This personality turns Emma into the embracing arms of two lovers. By marrying the wrong man, Emma acts upon what she believes is proper instead of doing what she wants to do. She is not true to her emotions and because of this she lives very unhappily. As Emma proves in this book, people should follow their heart and not worry so much about doing the "right thing." Emma says, "one must to some extent, bow to the opinion of the world, and except it's moral code," which is exactly what she did her whole life. Ironically, she says this and later pays for it for doing what others expected of her, instead of doing what she wanted. In desperation to get away from the zombie-like husband, she flees to Rodolphe Boulanger - a man with enough aggressiveness for a fleet of women. One man watches her and exclaims, "she is tired of him, no doubt, she's gaping after love like a carp after water on a kitchen-table." But, as Emma is scorned by each affair, she falls upon her human pillow, Charles. She continually tries to prove her innocence; so, she keeps her love from him and his idolatry. Some supporting incidents include the time when she hit her child, Berthe, and then told her husband that the kid cut her cheek. Another example is when Emma is about to have an affair with Leon, she starts acting like a good wife, a good mother-to-be, and she attends church. When Emma finally gives birth, it is to a girl, named Berthe at 6 a.m. on a Sunday morning. Through out the labor process, Emma was wanting a male descendent. "A man, at least, is free. He can explore passions and countries, surmount obstacles, taste the most exotic pleasures." Her justification is clearly stating the opposite: "But a woman is continually held back. Inert and flexible at the same time, she has both the susceptibilities of the flesh and legal restrictions against her." The birth symbolizes a new beginning. Six a.m. in the morning is the "birth of day", standard sunrise time, and Sunday is a holy day. Since on the seventh day God rested, he created man to live in his world that was made. Now, Berthe has to live in the isolated, misery-addicted world her mother has created for her; because Emma is so engulfed in herself, she brings her daughter down with her. Emma condemns Berthe from then on to live in her own personal inferno. With her mother's pitiful, pathetic, easy-way-out death, Berthe will escape Emma's grasp upon her non-existent, not-yet-formed childhood. Her death freed her husband from his agony of loving her; she freed Leon Dupuis to marry a Mademoiselle; and Rodolphe to fulfill his need for many lovers. Written in the nineteenth century, Gustave Flaubert uses the theme of freedom of one's self and romance to highlight this era.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Rugby And Football Essays (589 words) - Ball Games, Football Codes

Rugby and Football The thick, broad-shouldered athlete breathes heavily and grunts with each step as he and his teammates push mightily against the opposition. His arms are locked over his teammates' shoulders, all of their heads down. The two teams are pushing against each other like two moose fighting over territory. He looks down to see the ball, sitting just in front of his feet. If he could just hook it with his foot and heave it to his teammate behind him... This is what every player in a scrum is thinking while they fight each other for possession. Rugby is the true sport of men, because you wear no pads, and it is even more violent than football; however, football requires that you wear pads, thus being the true sport of want-to-be men. The rules of these similar yet vastly different games are extremely complex, so only the basics are necessary to distinguish the better sport. In football, the primary rule is that you must advance the ball forward by throwing it or running with it. Once a player with the ball is downed, the entire team lines up again, and the ball is snapped to the quarterback. The short pause in-between each down may not seem significant, but it definitely takes its toll on the excitement. In rugby, however, the primary rule is that you can only advance the ball by running with, kicking, or passing it. With passing, though, you can only pass the ball backwards or directly to your side, never forward. Like football, you score by running the ball into the endzone or by kicking it through the uprights. Also, you must touch the ball to the ground for it to count, and it is worth five points. When kicking, the ball can be kicked from anywhere spontaneously. If it passes through the uprights, it is worth three points, as in football. The equipment for the two sports is widely different, with football requiring much more. In football, players must wear a large set of pads, covering most of their body, and a masked helmet. The ball is made up of an inflated rubber bladder, surrounded by stitched leather, and it appears ellipsoidal in shape. Most players now wear cleated or spiked shoes, but flat-soles are often worn for artificial turf surfaces. But rugby, being the true sport of men, uses no pads of helmets. In fact the only equipment that are somewhat similar in both games can be found from the ankles down. Players wear a jersey, usually long-sleeved, athletic shorts, and cleated shoes. The ball has an oval shape to it, and is blunter than a football so that it may easily be bounced and dropkicked. The origins of football trace back to ancient Greece when they played a form of football know as harpaston, and the Romans played a similar game, harpastum. In medieval times, another form of football, calcio, flourished in Italy. Most modern versions of football however, originated in England, where a form of the game was known in the 12th century. Rugby is said to have originated when a boy at Rugby School in Rugby, England picked up and carried the ball during a game of football in 1823. Previously, the rules had only allowed the ball to be kicked. As I said before, rugby is the true sport of men. It is the supreme test of strength, endurance, determination, and agility. Whereas in football, the players are so cocky and greedy about how much money they will make during this game, that most of them do not even work their hardest to win, as long as they make a living.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

What To Do If You Find A Baby Squirrel

What To Do If You Find A Baby Squirrel Grey squirrels are abundant in many parts of the United States. And it is right around now that these frequently spotted mammals are having their babies. Grey squirrels have babies twice a year - in the early spring  and the late summer. So it is that time of year again when baby squirrels may be just making their first  appearances or even venturing from their nest.   Grey squirrels typically have three to four babies in each litter. By four weeks of age, the babies  eyes open and by six weeks, the young are making their way out of the nest. By the time they reach eight or nine weeks of  age, baby squirrels are no longer nursing and are generally able to survive on their own in the wild. So its a short window in which baby squirrels rely on their mothers to survive. But despite their  mothers best intentions during this period, it doesnt take much - a storm, a downed tree, or  prowling house pets - to seperate a young baby squirrel from its mother.   What should you do if you find a baby squirrel in need of help? For starters, you should assess whether or not the squirrel is injured. Is it bleeding or does it  appear to have broken bones? Do you see any wounds? Was the squirrel being attacked by a cat? If you answered yes to any of these questions, contact your local wildlife emergency center as soon as possible.   If youre not sure whom to call, start with your local animal shelter or police station. They should  have contact information for your nearest wildlife hospital or rehabilitation center. If the squirrel is not injured, and it looks like it weighs around a half a pound or so, it may just  be old enough to survive on its own. A good rule of thumb is that if the squirrel is old enough to run  from you, it is old enough to take care of itself.   If you do decide to pick up the squirrel in order to evaluate it, be sure to wear thick leather gloves  before handling. Even baby squirrels can have a strong bite! According to the Wildlife Center of Virginia, if the squirrels tail is fluffed out and it weighs more than 6.5 ounces, it does not need human intervention in order to survive. If not, the squirrel may still need to nurse and be cared for by its mother.If you can locate the nest, place the baby in a box with an open lid at the base of the tree where the nest is located, If it is cold out, add a bag of warmed rice or hand warmers to the box to keep the baby warm while it waits for its mother. Check back frequently to see if the mother has found and relocated her baby. If not, call a wildlife rehabilitator to reassess the situation. Whatever you do, do NOT attempt to bring the baby squirrel home and raise it as a pet. While they may seem cute and cuddly as babies, squirrels are wild animals and it wont take long before they need to get back out into the wild. But too much time around humans could make it more difficult for a squireel to survive on its own. When in doubt, call your local wildlife rehabilitators and they can talk you through the situation and  help you assess whether or not human intervention is needed. In many cases, nature can take care of itself and the baby squirrel can survive just fine without your help. But if help is needed, there are teams of professional and volunteer rehabilitators that can assist a young animal in getting back on its feet.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Study plan (essay) for studying abroad application Essay

Study plan ( ) for studying abroad application - Essay Example I anticipate to study international law, environmental economics, global environmental system, and introduction to environmental science. These subjects will broaden my knowledge in global environment and prepare me for future career as an environment professional at UNEP, which is my dream career. According to Stanley (2004, pp31-32), international law entails a variety of treaties and traditions, which control the conduct of sovereign states among themselves and people who trade or have legal relationships that involve the jurisdiction of more than one state. Since my future dream is to work with UNEP, studies in environmental economics, global environmental system and international law will equip me with necessary knowledge and skills to work in the international organization. In my academic sojourn in Korea, I intend to finally specialize in environmental science and international law. By studying these courses, I want to achieve knowledge on how environmental issues are dealt with not only in Korea but also globally. Currently, the world is facing a myriad of environmental challenges, such as climatic change, disasters and conflicts, ecosystem management, emission of harmful substances to the environment in addition to improper utilization of natural resources (United Nations Environment Programme, 2004, p14). I intend to enroll in the college of law, technology and in college of science at Korea University. At the college of law, I aspire to study courses in international and environmental law, in addition to human rights law. In the college of science and technology I intend to enroll for environmental engineering courses, which will equip me with relevant knowledge and skills. These include offering amicable solutions to global warming, and initiating environmentally friendly initiatives. Outside the classroom, I want to learn more about the Korean culture, especially gaining more understanding on their language and other

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Graduate level Economic question Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Graduate level Economic question - Assignment Example The outlook beyond 2012 is positive, where investments from the EU, Japan, China etc resume, and banking hubs like HK and Singapore resume expansion in developed economies. The deficit shall continue to increase for the foreseeable future. The government is printing like never before to keep the impact from its citizens. Due to this huge unsupported cash in the economy, the result shall be a hyper-inflationary trend that shall fuel an even tighter control on spending from consumers. The result will be a sudden loss of the US dollar’s purchasing power, causing other countries to exit long term treasury bonds to safer pastures (Williams 13). As soon as that happens, the bottom will fall out of the markets, as the others’ fear of American collapse will not fuel the support to the dollar, as the US shall have internally made it’s currency worthless. Federal reserve Policies will focus on a sustained purchase of gold to back the huge amount of dollars not backed by any assets, thereby causing gold to soar, and therefore become unaffordable to America itself. The feds will have to raise interest rates to protect the dollar, causing a fur ther slowdown in demand (Williams

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Devise a business plan for a start up Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Devise a business plan for a start up - Essay Example 1. Firstly, the business plan will act as a guide by which the shareholders of the firm will be able to manage and direct the growth and activities that will take place. As such, the guidance and framework which will be put forward, as well as time sensitive goals and metrics, will assist the aforementioned shareholders in developing a comprehensive business plan suited to addressing many of the needs that will doubtless present themselves to the business. As with any business, the overarching objective of ABC Immigration is to provide a wide and diverse array of legal and counseling services that will serve the client base with the peculiar needs that any and all immigration related questions and concerns would likely generate. Furthermore, the eventual goal will be to become something of a market leader within the geographic region with regards to immigration issues. 1. Profit: As with any firm, the primary motivator is to provide a profit to the shareholders by a means of sufficient growth and development of the firm and the services that are offered. In this way, the profit objective fits in with the following objectives as the ultimate end towards which the others work. 2. Growth: As a means to differentiate the business, add services, and provide a higher quality of services to the customer as well as providing a higher profit margin through differentiation of services, the growth of the firm is a secondary objective. Purpose: The purpose of the firm exists to provide professional, helpful, affordable, and timely legal counseling to the customers that seek such services. In this manner, the company exists for the sole purpose of providing the aforementioned services to the individuals companies that avail themselves of the services that ABC Immigration offers. Vision: The firm envisions itself as successful only by providing the

Friday, November 15, 2019

Decision-Making Process of Chinas Economic Sanctions

Decision-Making Process of Chinas Economic Sanctions It is undoubtedly that the rest of the world are increasingly concerned of Chinas economic power and how will China intend to use the power to advance geopolitical ends. China has enjoyed rapid economic growth since the introduction of market reforms in 1978. The unprecedented economic growth has made China becoming the second biggest economy in the world in the year 2010. Not only did Chinas economic power improves, the significant economic growth has also provided China with greater opportunity and strength to increase political influence abroad through economic means, so called economic statecraft. Today economic statecraft has become an ever more evident feature of Chinas behavior in the international system, as the level of interdependence between China and the global economic grows. To define economic statecraft more clearly, this study will rely on Baldwins (1985) definition. Baldwin defines economic statecraft as the use of economic levers by states attempting to influence other international actors through offering economic incentives or imposing negative sanctions[1]. In other words, economic statecraft is divided into positive incentives and negative sanctions, and these will take in the forms of trade and capital. For example, positive incentives in the form of trade are favorable tariff discrimination and trade subsidies, while capital incentives in the form of capital are foreign aid and investment guarantees. Examples of negative sanctions in the form of trade are embargo, boycott, and unfavorable tariff discrimination, while sanctions in the form of capital are aid suspension, freezing assets and financial control. Chinese leaders generally prefer carrots over sticks, as economic incentives provide mutual benefits to both economies and thus resulting in a win-win outcome. Examples are Chinas foreign aid activities in developing countries and Chinas free trade agreement with other countries, which both cases not only enable China to strengthen its relationship with other countries but also allow both countries to benefit economically. While the use of economic sanctions by China has been rather rare, which is not a surprising phenomenon. This is because China has a long-standing stance on the opposition of economic sanction[2]. It opposes sanctions as a way of resolving issues and condemns sanctions as an immoral punishment of vulnerable and the innocent populations. Chinas opposition is demonstrated through top Chinese leaders publicly criticized other countries for imposing economic sanctions to punish wrongdoers. One example is that a Chinese foreign ministry official, Jiang Yu responded to t he Frenchs call for massive sanctions against Iran to cease its nuclear program in 2009, China always believes that sanctions a pressure should not be an option and will not be conducive to the current diplomatic efforts over the Iran nuclear issues.[3] Another example is that the Chinese foreign minister, Wang Yi opposes sanctions on North Korea and expressed his view to the Japanese counterpart that unilateral sanctions were not the only answer to managing the situation on the Korean Peninsula and it would not resolve the nuclear issue of North Korea[4]. These two examples reflect Chinas belief of inefficacy of sanctions. Besides public critics of sanctions, China had also employed its Security Council veto to oppose against sanctions on countries including Myanmar in 2007, Zimbabwe in 2008, Syria in 2011 and 2012. Not only did Beijing thinks sanction is ineffective, but it also think sanction can inflict injury to the target countrys economy and the living of its people[5]. Beijing has repeatedly insisted that peaceful means should be employed as the priority option to resolve conflict, while sanction should only be used as a last resort[6]. Indeed Chinas opposition stance on sanctions is consistent with its commitment to peaceful development and its pursuit as a responsible power. Chinas peaceful development has been the central theme of Chinese foreign policy since 2004. Beijing sees peaceful development as crucial to preserve a peaceful environment for sustaining its economic development and stability. In other words, China advocates a world with peace and harmony, in which all countries are benef iting from the shared prosperity. China also has been working towards to build its image as a responsible power to mitigate Chinas threat theory through proactively involve in international affairs. Despite Beijings long standing negative perception of economic sanctions, there is a trend of China increasingly make use of economic coercion in the international arena, which marks a new and significant phenomenon that contradicts with Chinas rhetoric and its long-standing stance. This is evidenced in the four cases that will be further explored in the later chapters. The first case is Chinas proposed economic sanctions on USs companies that engages in arms sell to Taiwan in 2010. The second case is Chinas imports ban of crude soy oil from Argentina as a retaliation in response to Sino-Argentina tension in 2010. The third case is where China imposed an export ban of rare-earth on Japan in face of the Sino-Japanese tension in the disputed maritime island in 2010. The last case is Chinas restriction on Philippiness imported bananas following the Scarborough Shoal incident in 2012.These cases indicate the increasing propensity of China to exercise economic coercions. The question pres ents here is that provided Chinas negative perception of economic sanction, why China still imposes economic sanction on other countries as a tool of economic statecraft? What are the decision process driving China to exercise economic sanctions? What are the characteristics of Chinese economic sanctions? It is also worth noting that majority of the existing literature on Chinese economic statecraft focuses on the effects and efficacy of Chinese economic statecraft rather than on its motives and application. Because examples of Chinese economic coercion are relatively limited and understudied, an in-depth analysis of Chinas economic sanction is vital to understand the decision making process and what triggers China to resort to coercion especially in recent years. This study also further seek to explain how Chinas exercise of economic sanction fits into Chinas grand policy? This paper builds on Chinas economic statecraft literature specifically Chinese economic sanction in the field of International Political economy (IPE) by drawing key definition and concepts from influential works. 1. Economic Sanctions and its effectiveness As discussed in Chapter 1, economic sanctions are stemming from economic statecraft. Daniel Drezner (2003) defines economic coercion as the threat or act by a sender government to disrupt economic exchange with the target state, unless the target acquiesces to articulated demand.[7] Many scholars have used sender to refer to the state that imposes the sanction, while target means the sanctioned countries. However it is noted that many studies today have used the term economic coercion and economic statecraft interchangeably despite that they are different[8]. To align with the current studies, this paper will treat these two terms as equivalent. There two major weaknesses with this definition. First, Drezners definition of sanction is too restrictive. It only views the behavioral change as the only desired outcome of sanctions by the sender, which in this case is the acquiescence to the senders demand. However, sanctions can also have outcomes such as signal and deterrence. Second, t he definition limits itself to only one desired outcome by the sender. In fact, senders are able to achieve more than one outcome on the target by imposing sanctions. Lindsay and Giumelli demonstrate that economic sanctions can achieve outcomes other than behavioral change and hold multiple goals. Lindsay claims that sanction can take up to five different actions including compliance, subversion, deterrence, international symbolism, or domestic symbolism[9]. Giumelli also defines three dimension that sanction can take, which are coercion, constraint and signal[10]. For the purpose of this paper, I will utilize Giumellis three means of economic sanction to evaluate my dependent variables in Chapter 3. Most existing literature on economic sanctions focus on measuring the successful rate of economic sanctions. While the majority of literature in the 1970s and 1980s saw the low successful rate of economic sanction, many scholars concluded economic sanction to be ineffective. The study conducted by Hufbauer, Schott and Elloitt is one of the first to challenge the negative perception and finds that 34 percent of cases in economic sanctions were successful in the twentieth century[11]. However, the findings has later been contested by other scholars. Scholar like Robert Pape re-conducted the study using the same dataset, yet he finds less than 5 percent of sanctions had succeeded and concludes their study inflated the success rate[12]. On the other hand, Drezner holds an opposite view than Paper where he asserts that success rate is potentially undervalued as a result of selection biases[13]. He argues that there were many cases where economic coercion ended at the threat phase rather than the impositions phase. These cases show greater chances of succeeding than when they are imposed due to change of pre-emptive behavior. Since Hufbauer et al. select those cases that are less likely to succeed when sanctions are imposed, Drezner argues that they downplays the role of hidden hand of economic coercion and hence the success rate is far higher. These researches share the common weakness in which they have solely depended on the behavioral change criterion to gauge the successfulness of economic sanction. This problem is exactly the same as the definition earlier. Without taking into account other effects of economic sanction, the effectiveness of sanction cannot be measured. This raises a question if really economic sanctions are proved to be so unsuccessful in practice, why policymakers still depended on it for its state governance? Not to mention that today there is still no consensus reached as to the degree of success of economic sanctions. This is because of a lack of a shared model for the study of successful sanctions. However, in general scholars agree on that a successful economic sanctions is to keep the target costs of deadlock and potential vulnerabilities large while having the cost of imposing small. For instance, Hufbauer et al. in its 3rd book edition advise that policymakers require to evaluate both the vul nerability of the target country to prospective sanctions and the viability of maintaining the sanctions regime[14]. Drezner in his book the sanctions paradox illustrates the importance to enlarge the gap in the costs of sanctions impositions, meaning to maximize the targets costs of noncompliance and minimize the senders costs of imposition[15]. Beside this, he also argues that the low expectation of future conflict between the sender and target will make sanctions more likely to succeed. His argument has proven to explain why allies are more likely to take larger concession than the case with adversaries. It is worthy to note that the tools of economic sanctions are increasingly effective today than a decade ago, with improving abilities to enlarge the costs of targets while limit the senders costs. Smart or targeted sanction is one of them, where it was first introduced in 1990s. Smart sanctions are different to comprehensive sanctions in that they impose sanctions by targeting an individual or limited sectors compared to targeting the whole country[16]. By doing so, smart sanctions are able to effectively increase the costs in that group while reduce the humanitarian effects on the target countrys population and disruptive economic impacts to other sectors. Asymmetric interdependence is another major tool that has been increasingly used by policymakers. Hirschman demonstrates that asymmetry interdependence serves as a source of power to the stronger and larger states as they have the coercive leverage over the weaker and smaller states, with the smaller states are depended on the economy of the larger state[17]. Building on the concepts of Hirschman, Robert Keohane argues that asymmetric interference can also apply to weaker states provided that they have the asymmetric advantage in certain groups of the stronger states[18]. This thinking has challenged the original idea of asymmetry and provide explanation of why would weaker states impose sanctions on stronger states. Undoubtedly, the recent evolution of sanction tools stemming from the classical ones has increased the proliferation of the use economic sanctions. 2. Chinese economic sanctions Few scholars have commented on Chinas economic sanctions, and little remains to be found in the literature on this topic. This is simply because, strictly speaking, China does not formally impose economic sanctions unilaterally on other countries. Instead, China pursues other economic maneuvers that essentially have the same effect. To remain politically correct and technically accurate though, scholars use the term economic coercion to describe Chinas behaviour. Despite sharing the same objectives, economic sanctions mainly used by rich western countries and economic coercion have its own defining characteristics. Specifically, Chinas use of economic coercion is informal and indirect[19]. The Chinese government would never declare the true reason for the economic restrictions. Instead, other unrelated reasons are cited, leaving the target country to connect the dots themselves. Some scholars are starting to believe that Chinas longstanding practice of shunning economic sanctions will soon come to an end. Beijing has become increasingly reliant on economic coercion to solicit policy change or as a means to send a message[20]. As the number and degree of tensions escalate, economic coercion may not be adequate. Chinas growing economic clout is another alarming development for some. With greater power, some scholars fear that China would be more inclined to use what is readily available at their disposal. On the opposite side of the argument, scholars believe that China would continue its limited use of economic policies as a tool. The argument goes like this: Economic coercion or sanctions are detrimental to Chinas core national interests[21]. In particular, Beijing places great emphasis on peaceful development and creating a good international image. Imposing sanctions or coercion on other countries can seriously undermine that objective. Moreover, the stringent rules of the WTO greatly restricts the range of options that is available to Beijing. Pursuing an aggressive economic coercion strategy puts undue risks of violating WTO rules and damaging the countrys economic health.   1. Hypotheses After the analysis of literature review of economic sanctions, the following hypotheses are made to address the research question why China imposes economic sanctions? What trigger the use of economic sanctions? What are the distinctive characteristics of Chineses economic coercion? H1: China exercises economic sanction on non-allied countries when they harm Chinas national interest provided that the gain derived from sanction outweigh the cost. This hypothesis is built on the foundation of Drezners Sanction Paradox theory, which argues that sanctioning states are more likely to sanction adversaries than allies despite a lower success rate. The adversaries would take a larger concessions if target incurs significant more costs than senders costs. Since China views economic sanction as a last resort of resolving conflict, China will only imposes coercion when its core interest is infringed. In this case, the independent variable is damage or no damage to Chinas national security, while the dependent variable is the use of sanction. H2: China uses economic sanction where there is a sectorial asymmetric economic advantage over the target country Asymmetric economic advantage allows China to have a higher chance of success in achieving its political goals in target countries with limited costs. This hypothesis also considers the importance of smart sanction for Chinas decision to impose sanction. In specific, asymmetric economic advantage in a certain sectors offers coercive leverage and source of power to contest against equally strong or stronger countries. China takes advantage of the sectorial asymmetric advantage not only can generate the most optimal benefit-cost outcome but also minimize negative impacts on the whole economy and humanitarian impacts on the population. Independent variable is economic sanctions with sectorial asymmetric economic advantage, and dependent variable is the use of economic coercion. H3: China uses implicit economic sanctions as its prioritized option and uses explicit economic sanction as a last resort Implicit economic sanction indicates sanctions in a non-declared and closed-door settings. The implicit feature of economic sanctions allows China to gain flexibility and minimize diplomatic fallout. It also allows China to reveal a relatively more consistent image of a responsible power that advocates peaceful development and peaceful resolution. China will only adopt explicit economic sanctions if implicit sanctions cannot work. The independent variable in this hypothesis is implicit economic sanction, and dependent variable is the use of economic sanction. 3. Case Studies In order to examine the validity of these three hypotheses that together contribute to reasons why China uses economic sanctions. This study explores four case studies where China imposed economic sanctions against four different countries, which are the 2010 Sino-Taiwan arms war, the 2010 Sino-Argentina crude soy oil, the 2010 Sino-Japan rare earth war, and the 2012 Sino-Philippine banana war. In order to reduce the selection and personal biases, this study compares four case studies and identifies the similarities and differences between these studies. On top of that, quantitative measures is also adopted. In detail, the monetary costs of both the sender and target countries, the time period of the target countrys response to Chinas sanctions, as well as the impact of the sanction on the countrys economy are measured. Given that these four cases are all trade sanctions, trade statistics are collected from United Nations Commodity Trade Statistics (UN Comrade). These statistical results will also be contrasted case-by-case and is subsequently review together with the qualitative results. Even though the quantitative measures are not used to measure the effectiveness of Chinese coercion levers, they provide insights on the rationale why China employs these levers. The result can also confirm Chinas implementation of implicit economic coercions, as some may argue that Chinas moves are not economic sanction where they are independent of those incidents. Timeline/schedule for the thesis January: Amend and Complete literature Review and methodology chapters Research and examine the current literature on the four case studies February: Analysis of the qualitative analysis of four case studies and make comparison between the four Conduct quantitative analysis of the case studies and make comparison March: Interpretation of the results from both qualitative and quantitative analysis and make conclusion April Final submission [1] Baldwin David, Economic Statecraft (New Jersey: Princeton UP, 1985), 40-42. [2] James Reilly, Chinas Unilateral Sanctions, The Washington Quarterly 35, no. 4 (2012): 121-133. [3] Willem V. Kemenade, China vs. the Western Campaign for Iran Sanction, The Washington Quarterly 33, no. 3 (2010): 99-114. [4] Huileng Tan, China tells Japan sanctions against North Korea wont resolve nuclear issue, CNBN, September 14, 2016, (accessed December 8, 2016) [5] Mu Ren, Chinas Non-intervention Policy in UNSC Sanctions in the 21st Century: The Cases of Libya, North Korea, and Zimbabwe, Ritsumeikan International Affairs 12, (2014):101-134 [6] Ibid. [7] Daniel W Drezner, The Hidden Hand of Economic Coercion, International Organization 57, no. 3 (2003): 643-659. [8] Baldwin David, Economic Statecraft (New Jersey: Princeton UP, 1985) [9] James M Lindsay, Trade Sanctions As Policy Instruments: A Re-Examination, International Studies Quarterly 30, no. 2 (1986): 153-173 [10] Francesco Giumelli, Coercing, Constraining and Signalling: Explaining UN and EU Sanctions After the Cold War (Colchester: ECPR Press, 2011), 3 [11] Gary C. Hufbauer and Jeffrey J. Schott and Kimberly A. Elliott, Economic Sanctions Reconsidered: Supplemental Case Histories, (Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 1990) [12] Robert A Pape, Why Economic Sanctions Still Do Not Work, International Security 23, no.1 (1998): 66. [13] Daniel W Drezner, The Hidden Hand of Economic Coercion, International Organization 57, no. 3 (2003): 643-659. [14] Gary C. Hufbauer and Jeffrey J. Schott and Kimberly A. Elliott, Economic Sanctions Reconsidered: Supplemental Case Histories, (Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics, 2009), 690 [15] Daniel W Drezner, The Sanctions Paradox: Economic Statecraft and International Relations, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), 13 [16] Daniel W Drezner, Sanctions Sometimes Smart: Targeted Sanctions in Theory and Practice, International Studies Review 2011, no. 13 (2011): 96-108 [17] Albert Hirschman, National Power and the Structure of Foreign Trade,(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980). [18] Robert Keohane, and Joseph Nye, Power and Interdependence, 238-240. [19] James Reilly, Chinas Unilateral Sanctions, The Washington Quarterly 35, no. 4 (2012): 121-133. [20] Bonnie Glaser, Chinas Coercive Economic Diplomacy: A New and Worrying Trend,CSIS, August 6, 2012,, (Accessed on 11 December 2016) [21] Jianwei, Liu. Is china an emerging sanctioning state? Cooperation for a Peaceful and Sustainable World Part 2, 2013, 225-240.   

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Free Essay - Evil in Nathaniel Hawthornes The Scarlet Letter :: Scarlet Letter essays

Evil in the Scarlet Letter One belief that people live by is that evil is the nature of mankind, yet there are others that feel man has good intentions but those intentions can be overrun by the devil. Nathaniel Hawthorne points out that the former is true of all people in the novel The Scarlet Letter. In this novel, there are three main characters who commit evil and sinful acts, but each act is at a different degree of sinfulness (i.e. the sins get worse as the story goes a-long). These three sinners, in the eyes of the Puritan community, are the beautiful Hester Prynne, the esteemed Reverend Arthur Dimmesdale, and the cold-hearted doctor, Roger Chillingworth. Like Hawthorne, I believe that evil is the nature of man but that there are different magnitudes of evil; some choose to fight it, like Hester, and some choose to give in, like Chillingworth. Hester Prynne, a strong willed and brave woman, in respect to the two additional people, has committed the least amount of sin in the novel. In the eyes of the Puritan community, though, she has committed one of the worst possible sins that can be imagined: adultery. They feel she is horrendously corrupt, yet it is not truly her fault. Hester is the victim of her husband, Roger Chillingworth's (formerly Roger Prynne) stupidity by sending her to New England by herself, while he remained in Europe. Chillingworth even admitted that it was his fault when he voiced, "It was my folly! I have said it. But, up to that epoch of my life, I have lived in vain."(Ch.4, p. 68) Hester is also a victim of fate. She has no way of knowing if Chillingworth is dead or alive when the Indians capture him after he arrived in North America. She still goes against the strict Puritan rules, and breaks Commandment 7, which was often punished by death. Arthur Dimmesdale is a strong pillar of the community and a very devoted Puritan. What could he do that is worse than young Hester Prynne's appalling act of adultery? Well he goes a little further into the same sin. First of all, he commits adultery with the abandoned Hester. Then instead of admitting his sin to the public, he keeps his dark secret in his heart, knowing it will eat at him for the rest of his life until he reveals it.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Death Penalty: the Christian View

In almost every society, there are crimes and violations of human rights. To deal with these things, there are laws that prescribe the prevention of their occurrences. However, if the law is broken, commensurate punishment is put on the violator. Depending on the seriousness of the crime, the punishment may be light such as imprisonment for up to one year with corresponding fines, or it could also be severe as death penalty. Capital punishment or death penalty is usually imposed on persons who committed heinous crimes and are those that endanger the safety of the society. Some countries and societies implement capital punishment while others do not. There are various reasons for this policy of countries, including the social view on the death penalty and the prevailing religious view in the society among others. One of the foremost arguments for the imposition of death penalty is that it acts as a deterrent for heinous crimes. Most societies throughout history have used capital punishment. Governments have also used this extensively to execute persons that do not conform to the laws and standards of conduct in the society. Throughout history, capital punishment was also used to suppress political dissent and to preserve the prevailing order in the society. Nowadays, the death penalty is being imposed on capital crimes such as treason against the state, espionage, and murder. In other countries, crimes that are of sexual nature such as rape, sodomy, and adultery are also punishable by death. Human trafficking, plunder and corruption, as well as drug trafficking are also punishable by death in other countries. The foremost reason being given for the imposition of capital punishment is its power to deter crimes. The argument says that if heinous crimes are punishable by death, would-be perpetrators of such crimes would protect their lives and they will not commit heinous crimes. On the part of the victims of such crimes, they also receive justice and redress for the injury through the capital punishment. On the other hand, capital punishment is a lot less expensive than life imprisonment (Paternoster, 1991). There are a lot of debates surrounding the imposition of capital punishment. Almost all countries in Europe, as well as in the Pacific area, and Latin America have abolished capital punishment in the name of respecting and protecting human rights. There are still a large number of countries that retained it, however. The United States Federal government with 36 States has retained it. Brazil imposes capital punishment only during wartime while countries in Asia and Africa also retained it. Notably, South Africa does not have capital punishment in spite of the high incidence of violent crimes such as murder and rape. South Korea no longer imposes capital punishment, as well as Uzbekistan, because it was not being used for a long time. A number of individuals, organizations, and human rights advocates object to the imposition of capital punishment. The questions they raise concern the effectiveness of capital punishment in deterring crimes. Moreover, there is always the possibility that the innocent person will be sentenced to death. Once the penalty is imposed, it can no longer be undone even if a separate investigation will render the accused as innocent from the crimes. There are also a number of instances in which minority groups are discriminated against in imposing capital punishment. Minority groups usually have lesser access to the best lawyers. As such, they run the greater risk of being proclaimed guilty for the crimes for which they are accused. With capital punishment, once death penalty is imposed, it is final. The person will have no chance to reform his ways or redeem his actions. He has been condemned by the courts to be forever separated from the rest of the society. In the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations in 2007, the UN passed a resolution calling for the universal ban on capital punishment. This resolution asked the member-states of the UN to impose a moratorium on imposing the death penalty with the eventual plan of abolishing capital punishment. This resolution was made in recognition of the human rights of accused criminals and the possibility of redemption and change. Various religions also have varied responses to capital punishment. Even a particular denomination or religious group may not have a unified stand regarding capital punishment. Religious sentiments do play a significant part in the views of people regarding capital punishment. The Bible is replete with various passages that may seem to support or condemn capital punishment. The Old Testament, particularly, is based upon a morality of â€Å"teeth against teeth† and â€Å"life for life. † The books of laws of the Old Testament actually prescribe stoning to death the persons who commit serious crimes against God and against the community. A number of biblical scholars have considered the part of the Ten Commandments that say â€Å"You shall not kill† as a prohibition against individual cases of murder (The Ryrie Study Bible, Exodus 20:13). In the first place, the Christian faith believes that humans are created in the image of God. As such, a serious crime against another person is also a crime against God. In the Old Testament, premeditated murder was sufficient reason for the death penalty (Numbers 35:31, 33). Moreover, in Genesis 9:6, it can be read that â€Å"whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed†. St. Thomas Aquinas also published his thoughts regarding capital punishment. He said that â€Å"the civil rulers execute, justly and sinlessly, pestiferous men in order to protect the peace of the state† (Summa Contra Gentiles, III, 146). Furthermore, St. Thomas Aquinas talked about the need to impose death penalty on the crime doers. â€Å"The fact that the evil, as long as they live, can be corrected from their errors does not prohibit the fact that they may be justly executed, for the danger which threatens from their way of life is greater and more certain than the good which may be expected from their improvement. They also have at that critical point of death the opportunity to be converted to God through repentance. And if they are so stubborn that even at the point of death their heart does not draw back from evil, it is possible to make a highly probable judgment that they would never come away from evil to the right use of their powers† (St. Thomas Aquinas, Summa Contra Gentiles, Book III, 146). The sacrifice of Jesus Christ on the cross is at the centerpiece of Christianity. Without such sacrifice, there would be no Christian faith. Such sacrifice is also a form of capital punishment in the sense that he bore the sins of the whole world. Such sin therefore requires the death penalty and Christ willingly went to the Cross to satisfy the requirements of a just and loving God for the remission of sins. Although the Old Testament has a number of provisions for death penalty, the New Testament appears to emphasize the love of God. This has been seized by anti-capital punishment advocates in moving towards the abolition of capital punishment. John 8:7 (NIV) of the Bible, which reads, â€Å"But Jesus bent down and started to write on the ground with his finger. When they kept on questioning him, he straightened up and said to them; â€Å"If any one of you is without sin, let him be the first to throw a stone at her. † is being taken as a passage supporting the abolition of capital punishment. In this regard, the sixth commandment is also being preached in a lot of churches as a prohibition against capital punishment. Several Christians also point to the love and grace of God as reason why capital punishment should not be instituted. Following this line of argument, it means that criminals are being given the maximum time for the possibility of repentance and redemption. With God’s grace and love, even criminals may still get a chance to reform their ways. Christian groups have diverse opinions and individual Christians do have the choice for their own preference and view apart from the official stand of their churches. Historically, the Roman Catholic Church accepted capital punishment based on the theology and views of St. Thomas Aquinas. The reason behind this is the way in which death penalty can deter and prevent crime. It is not a means for revenge. However, during the time of Pope John Paul II, the Roman Catholic Church revised this position. This position was defined by Pope John Paul II through the encyclical he released entitled Evangelium Vitae. As a result of this, the Roman Catholic Church now believes that capital punishment is not the best way to deal with crimes. Rather, capital punishment should be avoided except in cases where it is the only means available to defend the society from the criminal or offender. Given the present situation of penal systems, such need for execution is virtually non-existent. According to the Catechism of the Roman Catholic Church, â€Å"Assuming that the guilty party's identity and responsibility have been fully determined, the traditional teaching of the Church does not exclude recourse to the death penalty, if this is the only possible way of effectively defending human lives against the unjust aggressor. If, however, nonlethal means are sufficient to defend and protect people's safety from the aggressor, authority will limit itself to such means, as these are more in keeping with the concrete conditions of the common good and are more in conformity to the dignity of the human person. Today, in fact, as a consequence of the possibilities which the state has for effectively preventing crime, by rendering one who has committed an offense incapable of doing harm – without definitely taking away from him the possibility of redeeming himself – the cases in which the execution of the offender is an absolute necessity are very rare, if not practically nonexistent† (Catechism of the Catholic Church, no. 2267). Given this position, the Roman Catholic Church has affirmed the sanctity of life through this position. Such position aims to affirm the dignity and rights of a person even if he has committed some crimes. The position promoted and adopted by the Roman Catholic Church through Pope John Paul II is a revolutionary one and it is in keeping with the prevailing views in the world today regarding the abolition of death penalty. Depending on the stand of the churches, more liberal groups tend to be abolitionist, meaning they want to abolish death penalty. The more conservative denominations of Christianity tend to support the imposition of death penalty. Protestant Christian Churches also have their official stand regarding capital punishment. The Anglican and Episcopalian churches has opted a policy that condemns death penalty in 1988 through the Lambeth Conference of Anglican and Episcopal bishops. The United Methodist Church, as well as other Methodist churches all over the world has taken the position against capital punishment. The church says that it cannot support capital punishment on the basis of social vengeance and retribution. More importantly, capital punishment tends to be imposed more frequently to marginalized sectors of the society such as the uneducated, ethnic and racial minorities, the poor, and the disenfranchised. The General Conference of the United Methodist Church, which meets once in every four years, asked its bishops to oppose capital punishment and advocate for governments to impose a moratorium on the implementation of death penalty (United Methodist Church website, 2007). The Lutheran Church in America also opposes the death penalty. Such decision was made in 1991 through a social policy statement that the church released. The policy stated that vengeance is the main reason for the imposition of capital punishment. Furthermore, the Church believes that repentance, forgiveness, and redemption are necessary for true healing to be accomplished (ELCA, 2007). With this policy, the Lutheran Church joins the throng of Christian churches that support the abolition of death penalty. Given these stands of various churches, most denominations appear to support the abolitionist position. The interpretation of these churches of the Christian faith is one in which God’s love and mercy takes precedence over the imposition of punishment on the erring party. There are still churches within the Lutheran tradition that supports death penalty. They cite the stand of Martin Luther regarding death penalty and the way that this represents the justice of God. This also means that churches are now more and more in sync with the ideas and movements of other cause-oriented groups in the society. As time moves on, the views of Christian churches are also changing. There is almost a universal consensus regarding the importance of abolishing death penalty. For Christians, however, there are important issues at stake. This also concerns the emphasis on God’s justice, or God’s love. This also has an implication on the advocacies and ministries of Christian Churches. Traditionally, Christianity has emphasized the justice and the holiness of God and the way in which humans fall short of this. Moreover, justice means equality for all and that people get what they deserve. Given this framework of understanding, capital punishment is necessary. In recent years, however, there has been an emphasis on God’s love and grace. This means that the churches have redefined their role to dispense grace and promote forgiveness, healing, and reconciliation. This does not sit well, however, for the advocates of capital punishment. Because the major denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church, the United Methodist Church, and the Lutheran church have worldwide presence, this means that the abolitionist perspective has a better chance to be propagated all over the world. In this regard, the Christian church is working hand in hand with the United Nations, Amnesty International, and other human rights groups in promoting the dignity of humans. If the advocacy of rights groups and the churches succeed, this means that more and more countries might forego the capital punishment in the coming years. The effects of this on the incidence of crime and the social and governance policy of governments all over the world remain to be seen.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Free Essays on Microprocessor

Embedded microprocessors and embedded microcontrollers are similar but different at the same time. Both have the ability to run a task. But the microcontroller is more of a self sufficiant computer than the microprocessor. The microprocessor is more of a the component that drives your computer. A microprocessor is a computer processor on a microchip. It's sometimes called a logic chip. It is the "engine" that goes into motionwhen yopu turn your computer on. A microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that make use of small number-holding areas called registers. Typical microprocessor operations include adding, subtracting, comparing two numbers, and gathering numbers from one place and moving it to another. These operations are the results of a set of instructions that are part of the microprocessor design. When the computer is turned on, the microprocessor is designed to get the first instruction from the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) that comes with the computer as part of its memory. After that either the BIOS, the operating system that BIOS loads into memory, or an application program is "driving" the microprocessor. One of the former are giving the microprocessor instructions to perform. A microcontrolller is a highly integrated chip that contains all the components comprising a controller. Typically this includes a CPU, RAM, some form of ROM, IO ports, and timers. Unlike a general-purpose computer, which also includes all of these components, a microcontroller is designed for a very specific task. They are generally used to control a particular system. As a result, the parts can be simplified and reduced, which cuts down on production costs. For both microprocessors and microcontrollers embedded mean that they are part of a larger system. The microprocessor bus discussed most often is the data bus; the bundle of wires (or pins) used to send and receive data. The more si... Free Essays on Microprocessor Free Essays on Microprocessor Embedded microprocessors and embedded microcontrollers are similar but different at the same time. Both have the ability to run a task. But the microcontroller is more of a self sufficiant computer than the microprocessor. The microprocessor is more of a the component that drives your computer. A microprocessor is a computer processor on a microchip. It's sometimes called a logic chip. It is the "engine" that goes into motionwhen yopu turn your computer on. A microprocessor is designed to perform arithmetic and logic operations that make use of small number-holding areas called registers. Typical microprocessor operations include adding, subtracting, comparing two numbers, and gathering numbers from one place and moving it to another. These operations are the results of a set of instructions that are part of the microprocessor design. When the computer is turned on, the microprocessor is designed to get the first instruction from the Basic Input/Output System (BIOS) that comes with the computer as part of its memory. After that either the BIOS, the operating system that BIOS loads into memory, or an application program is "driving" the microprocessor. One of the former are giving the microprocessor instructions to perform. A microcontrolller is a highly integrated chip that contains all the components comprising a controller. Typically this includes a CPU, RAM, some form of ROM, IO ports, and timers. Unlike a general-purpose computer, which also includes all of these components, a microcontroller is designed for a very specific task. They are generally used to control a particular system. As a result, the parts can be simplified and reduced, which cuts down on production costs. For both microprocessors and microcontrollers embedded mean that they are part of a larger system. The microprocessor bus discussed most often is the data bus; the bundle of wires (or pins) used to send and receive data. The more si...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Exam over the history of Reform and Power of the Elites essays

Exam over the history of Reform and Power of the Elites essays American people hear about reform and ideas surrounding reform every election year. Americans around election time begin to hear new policies that an elected candidate would like to enact or reforms that they will pass when in power. These reforms are made to seem like the key to a brighter tomorrow for everyone. Americans begin to live with a new hope, that this one person will get elected and in taking office make dreams come true. In most cases the reforms that the politicians speak of are thrown by the waste side even if they are elected, and when they are enacted they usually fail to satisfy the American people. When one examines reforms that have come about since the 1930s one can see many trends in American desires and how they were are were not met when reforms are set into motion by the government. When speaking of reform in government it is necessary to examine the New Deal set into motion by Roosevelt. Roosevelt enacted a whirlwind of political reform with the hopes of picking America out of unemployment and depression. His aid to the economy, to the jobless, to the farms followed quickly after his election. The New Deals first act was the Emergency Banking Act established on March 9th 1933, six more were to immediately follow. The acts provided funds for farmers, jobs for the unemployed youth, and relief for the impoverished. With this being said, one would think that the new deal programs were among the most popular reforms to date. This was not the entire case. Some programs such as the Civilian Conservation Corps won wide popularity, others did not. Those farmers that did not have much land did not qualify for atonement offered to the larger field farmers. Business reform was also met with numerous conflicts; those in power companies did not want to suffer with increas ed competition and fought New Deal reforms. Moving form the 30s to the 60s is a jump in time but the number of reforms ena...

Sunday, November 3, 2019

International Human Rights Protection Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

International Human Rights Protection - Essay Example However, with not all countries adhering to the provisions of convention with sincerity, the convention has not been able to bring about the necessary effect, and thus, discrimination of women has continued unabated even in literate and well-developed societies. The implementation of the 1979 UNGA convention was a creditable effort in bringing out human rights concerns of the female half of the humanity. The convention specified meaning of equality and also the means to achieve it. As per Article 1, discrimination has been spelt out as "any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex ... in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field." The agenda is then spread over fourteen such articles including human reproduction aspects and their rights therein. While cultural and legal status of women receives maximum attention, their rights to education, employment, economic and social activities are also critically assessed. It also declares full equality of women in civil and business matters and that any instrument restricting such legal capacity shall be null and void. Marriage, family relations and rights with regard to choice of spouse, parenthood, personal rights and command over property receive deta iled description. In reproductive function, it requires shared responsibility for child rearing, maternity protection and child care. Society's obligations in areas like provisioning of child care facilities while women performing public life have been clearly spelt out. Cultural patterns which define world as a man's world globally also need to be amended through proactive initiatives by respective societies with assistance from their governments. Essential Drawbacks The essential drawbacks in implementation of the provisions of the convention lie in the fact that while states have an obligation to implement the convention; there is no accepted way of penalising a state that willingly or unwillingly does not conform to implementation of these provisions. While states with better track record have achieved better human development in terms of lower poverty, better education or uniform laws for all citizens, most developing or undeveloped countries have failed to satisfactorily ensure women's empowerment due to lack of national will, inadequate policy implementation and deep rooted traditional issues which are dificult to tackle. While the list of difficulties being faced is too long to be included in this section, some such aspects along with specific articles of the convention are discussed in succeeding paragraphs: Traditional view of subordinate position of women in most societies has been the biggest roadblock across the world. Articles 2(f), 5 and 10 (c) relate to traditional attitudes regarding women being subordinate to men. Besides physical violence and mental torture, this also causes lower levels of education, neglected skills, unequal work opportunities and minimal political participation. These also propagate pornography and use of women as sexual objects than as individuals. Article 6 requires elimination of women trafficking and prostitution.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Investment and protofolio risk for microsoft Essay

Investment and protofolio risk for microsoft - Essay Example Another risk associated in this problem is the so called – financial risk, which is the ambiguity introduced by the manner of financing the firm. Taking for example if Microsoft has to outsource to finance the whole company, it has to repay fixed financing charges such as interest expenses and return of principal amount before paying its shareholders. This then increases the risk of shareholders’ investment due to the preference of distributing its assets. Liquidity risk is the uncertainty over the ability to sell an investment in the secondary market which is Microsoft’s ability to sell its asset or convert non cash assets to cash in order to finance the company. Another risk connected in investment decisions is the Exchange rate risk or the uncertainty over the domestic currency value of a foreign currency denominated investment, which means that the value of the money varies with the currency of another country. The risk might be the value of the investment might go down or become lesser especially when it comes to currency conversion. Country risk is also taken into consideration with regards to investment. This is the uncertainty over the political or economic environment in which the investment is located. A major factor for investment decisions is the political and economic stability of a particular country where the investment is located, this is because, the more stable the political and economic environment is, the more investors are attracted and therefore, the more profit the company may generate. Another risk to be considered is the credit risk or the uncertainty over whether the issuer of a fixed income security will deliver the contractual cash flows which means, the ability of Microsoft to attract creditors for additional financing or its ability to collect money form its deliveries and services to its customers who purchased on account. Sometimes, credit risk is also carried when creditors were

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Amendment Impact Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Amendment Impact - Assignment Example Despite this extent of unreliability, the supreme courts in most states still insist on the evidence from show up identification. This majority rule approach employs malleable and outdated facts; as a result the show up type of evidence is routinely used against innocent defendants during criminal trials. In some states however, defendants are offered meaning protection under the constitution. Such reforms come in form of evolution of the approach that is used by the majority. Here, much more relevant facts and circumstances are added in the analysis. The next one is a revolution that goes against the majority approach. In this instance, the evidence from show up identification is prohibited unless it is at the time of show up. It is applicable in cases where existing circumstances avert the use of photo array or line up process; or lack of probable cause for arresting the suspect, and there is no cause for illegally arresting him long enough while awaiting line up or photo array results. The best thing about the revolutionary show up approach is that it provides innocent defendants protection against any form of false identification and wrong convictions. Most bodies especially those concerning the human rights have persistently urged the supreme courts to adopt the revolutionary methods. Despite all these compulsions, the courts are still very adamant in their trials. Most trial courts will thwart the minority rule by distortion of the two exemptions thus exposing defendants to wrongful trials. When there is false eyewitness identification and wrong convictions, truth is always uncovered by the use of post conviction DNA tests. However, in many major criminal cases, normally criminal evidence is either destroyed or even considered nonexistent. This results into significant problems for the defendant whom in most cases is

Monday, October 28, 2019

Subordinate work Essay Example for Free

Subordinate work Essay This has actually been socially recognized as a global repetition of proposals that later on endorsed the promotion of Canadian women in leadership to better disseminate the importance of their gender role in an ethnic and culturally diverse society. Canada has therefore recognized the efforts of women in a new economy build up of a diverse talent pool that sees accomplishments across presentations at public forums and media communications. Further, in the educational fields, despite being less motivated in studies relative to male-dominated professions like natural sciences, engineering and mathematics, the women folk continue to slowly dominate a smattering of educational endeavors which in the previous years were considered male dominated. The benefits attached to these fields are slowly embraced to leverage with respect for the gender differences among employees. We have seen the efforts of Canadian women who take tremendous strides in their educational attainment and become members of the legitimate professional workforce. Although a majority of around 70% according to the Status of Women (2000) is still in occupations such as teaching, nursing and related health occupations, their representation have slowly increased in professional administrative and managerial positions. Adams has endorsed the full professional recognition and legislation that completely overhaul the history of labeling women’s professions as subordinate work. Further, the recognition of women in various fields of science acknowledges Canadian women’s interest to work in the community for economic development. Through development organizations that have mushroomed around in Canada, women are given the opportunity to learn new skills and share their experience with others in an effort to uplift their femininity and promote a social and economic change for the female gender. With a commitment aimed at an economic independence the Canadian Women’s Foundation work in an effort to promote equality and eliminate poverty among women. Organizational leaders have realized that improving the lives of women and their families is an initial effort in promoting a socially relevant change the uplift the lives of women for the betterment of the general society. Works Cited Canada. Status of Women 2000. Roscoe, Will, Ladd, Edmund (Eds. ). (1999). The Zuni Man-Woman in Life. New Mexico: University Press. Adams, Tracy. (2003). Professionalization, Gender and Female-Dominated Professions: Dental Hygiene in Ontario. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 40. Pierson, Ruth R. and Cohen, Marjorie G. (1995). Canadian Women’s Issues: Bold Visions. Canada: James Lorimer.