Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Amendment Impact Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Amendment Impact - Assignment Example Despite this extent of unreliability, the supreme courts in most states still insist on the evidence from show up identification. This majority rule approach employs malleable and outdated facts; as a result the show up type of evidence is routinely used against innocent defendants during criminal trials. In some states however, defendants are offered meaning protection under the constitution. Such reforms come in form of evolution of the approach that is used by the majority. Here, much more relevant facts and circumstances are added in the analysis. The next one is a revolution that goes against the majority approach. In this instance, the evidence from show up identification is prohibited unless it is at the time of show up. It is applicable in cases where existing circumstances avert the use of photo array or line up process; or lack of probable cause for arresting the suspect, and there is no cause for illegally arresting him long enough while awaiting line up or photo array results. The best thing about the revolutionary show up approach is that it provides innocent defendants protection against any form of false identification and wrong convictions. Most bodies especially those concerning the human rights have persistently urged the supreme courts to adopt the revolutionary methods. Despite all these compulsions, the courts are still very adamant in their trials. Most trial courts will thwart the minority rule by distortion of the two exemptions thus exposing defendants to wrongful trials. When there is false eyewitness identification and wrong convictions, truth is always uncovered by the use of post conviction DNA tests. However, in many major criminal cases, normally criminal evidence is either destroyed or even considered nonexistent. This results into significant problems for the defendant whom in most cases is

Monday, October 28, 2019

Subordinate work Essay Example for Free

Subordinate work Essay This has actually been socially recognized as a global repetition of proposals that later on endorsed the promotion of Canadian women in leadership to better disseminate the importance of their gender role in an ethnic and culturally diverse society. Canada has therefore recognized the efforts of women in a new economy build up of a diverse talent pool that sees accomplishments across presentations at public forums and media communications. Further, in the educational fields, despite being less motivated in studies relative to male-dominated professions like natural sciences, engineering and mathematics, the women folk continue to slowly dominate a smattering of educational endeavors which in the previous years were considered male dominated. The benefits attached to these fields are slowly embraced to leverage with respect for the gender differences among employees. We have seen the efforts of Canadian women who take tremendous strides in their educational attainment and become members of the legitimate professional workforce. Although a majority of around 70% according to the Status of Women (2000) is still in occupations such as teaching, nursing and related health occupations, their representation have slowly increased in professional administrative and managerial positions. Adams has endorsed the full professional recognition and legislation that completely overhaul the history of labeling women’s professions as subordinate work. Further, the recognition of women in various fields of science acknowledges Canadian women’s interest to work in the community for economic development. Through development organizations that have mushroomed around in Canada, women are given the opportunity to learn new skills and share their experience with others in an effort to uplift their femininity and promote a social and economic change for the female gender. With a commitment aimed at an economic independence the Canadian Women’s Foundation work in an effort to promote equality and eliminate poverty among women. Organizational leaders have realized that improving the lives of women and their families is an initial effort in promoting a socially relevant change the uplift the lives of women for the betterment of the general society. Works Cited Canada. Status of Women 2000. Roscoe, Will, Ladd, Edmund (Eds. ). (1999). The Zuni Man-Woman in Life. New Mexico: University Press. Adams, Tracy. (2003). Professionalization, Gender and Female-Dominated Professions: Dental Hygiene in Ontario. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology 40. Pierson, Ruth R. and Cohen, Marjorie G. (1995). Canadian Women’s Issues: Bold Visions. Canada: James Lorimer.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

The Hypocrisy of Humanity Depicted in Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbir

Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird, has many stories from Scouts’ little town in Alabama that teaches the reader the good and bad sides of the human being. When all these come together, the result is this fantastic novel. One of the stories that stand out is the one when Mrs. Gates and Cecil Jacobs have a conversation in the classroom. They talk about Adolph Hitler and the malicious things he did to the Jewish people. Mrs. Gates tries to tell her students that what he did was wrong in a very firm tone of voice. At this point in the story, the reader feels anger for everything the Nazis did. However, the main point of this passage is to make the reader realize how two-faced Mrs. Gates is. In this novel, Harper Lee implies that humanity should be less hypocritical. When Cecil Jacobs makes his presentation about Adolph Hitler, Mrs. Gates comments about it. She teaches the children in her classroom that what this man did was very wrong since he killed many Jews just because he did not like them. Nevertheless, the reader finds this very paradoxical for the reason that she does not have respect for black-colored-people. Mrs. Gates does not seem to understand the bad example that she is providing to the children she is teaching to. Her hypocrisy does not help to fulfill her role as teacher: to teach and provide the skills and principles children will have to use later in life. The author of this novel has given the reader this story to symbolize the hypocrisy that one finds in today’s society, to show that sometimes and most of the time, the human beings talk a lot but do not look at their own actions or execute what they are teaching. Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird shows so many characteristics of today’s society. Among thes... ...ould be more honest and less hypocritical. An individual who is a great example of this is Al Gore, the Oscar-Winner for his documentary â€Å"An Inconvenient Truth†. He tells audiences the way they should live and how they should manage their life-styles to help save the environment mean while he is riding in style and waists twelve times more electric energy compared to an average family in a year. Harper Lee has used the narrative point of view, characterization and irony to develop a more dramatic effect of hypocrisy between Mrs. Gates and black-colored-people. It is very unfortunate that there are people like Mrs. Gates and Mr. Al Gore in today’s world. For this reason, every individual should strive to be better as a person to make their community a better place to live in and to provide an appropriate example to those who will live in it in the next generations.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Embracing Readymades and the Notion of Living Forever Essay

It is a shared combination of works that is displayed throughout the museum, setting up conversation between the museum’s collection and Hirst’s contemporary art pieces. The relationship and connection between the works will give visitors a dialogue between the different works, engaging them in a conversation of art and science between the past, present and future. Hirst, one of the most celebrated contemporary artists, whose works propose a personal interpretation of past works, find their insight in science and their basis in art history. Relationships with life and death are being examined, and questions dealth to our cultural, artistic and philosophical ideals. * Works of Damien Hirst mirrored Marcel Duchamp’s idea of the ‘readymade’, that the concept is much more important than the outcome of the work itself, and that ordinary objects/subjects could be taken from everyday use and be used for art. Although Hirst’s works explores the themes of life and death, pathology and science, with the help of ‘readymade’ objects, his works arouse a sense of spiritual enlightenment in the spectator, along with the notion of living forever, which compliments with the centenary of the museum. * With that, I will firstly talk about the idea of the ‘readymades’, and how it is being used in the works that is being exhibited in Cornucopia. Next, I will be analyzing them, discussing the potential meaning behind the ‘readymades’ to my proposed theme of spirituality and the idea of living forever. Koons seduces and persuades the spectators with such works, and desire will ultimately be gone once the spectators looks at themselves and realize that they are desire itself. * * CONCLUSION * The use of ‘readymades’ to promote or provoke an idea, a thought, is what Damien Hirst seeks out to achieve in the exhibition, Cornucopia. As it was held in accordance to the Oceanographic Museum’s 100th anniversary, Hirst’s artworks seek out to question its visitors, what has changed and what remained. Only by constant questioning will we improve and move forward. A sense of spiritual attainment and the idea of living forever can be felt whne looking at Hirst’s works, it evades time and seems to be stuck in limbo, allowing us to reflect on ourselves and our morality. As I have compared, the works of artist Jeff Koons also seeks to enlighten the viewers with his version of the ‘readymades’. ‘Readymades’ is an excellent way to provoke thinking and spreading message as everyday objects are familiar to the general consensus and people could relate better to them, rather then traditional symbols of art.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Do You Beleive in Magic? – Harry Potter Fanfiction

Do you believe in Magic? by  Harry Potter – Stories from Tumblr  on Tuesday, October 4, 2011 at 7:09am â€Å"This is outrageous! Outrageous I say! First  we have to deal with post on Sundays, and  now  we have to leave the house on a freezing cold day to take the boys on a bloody train journey?! Are these freaks so ignorant that they are completely unaware of the fact that the golf is on the TV?! † grumbled Vernon Dursley as he trailed after his family towards King’s Cross Station. Dudley kept up his brisk walking pace, not stopping while he looked over his shoulder at his father – he was determined to get his family out of the cold September rain and the biting chill that the wind carried as it blew through the car park. Regina stayed close by her husband’s side, wrapping her Burberry trench coat tighter around herself to stop more goose bumps from forming on her arms. â€Å"Considering that they don’t  have  TV’s, I’m guessing not Dad. And watch what you say, my sons are not ‘freaks’ as you so affectionately stated† Dudley countered with a roll of his eyes as he lead his family through the doors of the Station. Regina was confused when she saw Dudley smirk and she too looked over her shoulder and had to actually bite her bottom lip to suppress her smile. Petunia was glaring and tutting at her husbands behavior. Vernon, who was now well into his mid-sixties was standing in the doorway to the train station looking positively gob-smacked. His hair, which had once been thick and black, was now very thin due to the fact that he was going bald, as well as being a silvery shade of grey – as was his bristly moustache. Much to Petunia’s dismay, Vernon had not lost any weight whatsoever over the years – despite the amount of diets he went on and exercise equipment they had bought. In fact he had done the complete opposite and gained weight, making him even more obese than he had been 19 years ago. As a result, he was now blocking one of the main entrances into the station. Not that he took much notice of this mind you, he was too busy acting like a surprised fish – his beady little blue eyes protruding out of their sockets as he opened and closed his mouth continuously. For the first time that day, Vernon had stopped his complaining – he was speechless. This shouldn’t have surprised Dudley though; his father had been speechless for the past two weeks. Ever since the owls had arrived with corresponding letters informing Regina and Dudley that their twin boys, David and Richard would be attending Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. *** â€Å"And so to conclude my speech, I would just like to say†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Dudley had to stifle as yawn as he listened to his pompous Father’s incessant rambling. He insisted upon doing this every single year – making a ‘short speech’ about his Grandchildren’s many accomplishments. Short speech my arse’ Dudley mentally scoffed as he leaned back in his dining chair and put his arms behind his head. Vernon’s speeches were always like War and Peace – he simply didn’t shut up. Dudley wouldn’t have minded if his Father prattled on at him any other time, but this was a special day and judging from his families facial expressions they were as bored as Dudley was. Regina, always considerate and polite, was the only person at the long rectangular dining table giving Vernon her full attention. That is, she was the only person who was not practically falling asleep. From the looks of it though she was not far off it. Her golden blonde hair shone in the sunlight that streamed through the conservatory roof and French windows. A soft breeze swirled through the leaves of the tall Oak trees and the Rose bushes that filled the garden. It drifted into the conservatory through the open double-doors and as the warm breeze caressed her face, it lulled her into a calm state and her eyes began to droop shut – meaning that Dudley no longer had the privilege of admiring her beautiful Emerald-green eyes. â€Å"-So now I’d like you all to join me in a toast! To David and Richard, Happy Birthday boys! Vernon announced, startling Regina out of her comatose state and bringing Dudley back to the present. â€Å"Five quid please† Dudley heard his son whisper to his brother on his right. He looked over just in time to see David’s lips pucker and his eyebrows furrow together in a frown as he dug his hand into his pocket and handed a five-po und note over to his brother. Just another two minutes and Richard would have been the one paying  him  five pounds. As David examined his new watch he nodded with an appreciate smile – this was quite impressive, Vernon’s speech had only gone on for about 28 minutes. Usually they lasted over half an hour! Dudley smiled at boys antics and got out of his seat to give his boys a hug. â€Å"Happy Birthday sons† he whispered into his boy’s messy hair as he wrapped his arms around both of their shoulders. â€Å"I hope it’s been a wonderful day† he told them both. â€Å"Well it’s not over yet! We still have presents! † exclaimed Regina as she walked back into the conservatory, her arms struggling to hold the amount of presents they carried. â€Å"Oh Mum, Dad, you really didn’t have to! † cried Richard, his eyes widening at the amount of wrapped presents his mother laid on the table in front of him and his brother. Ye, you really shouldn’t have. Really. This is too mu-â€Å" â€Å"Rubbish, it’s a special day! It’s not every day your young men turn 11 now is it? † Dudley told them whilst patting them both on the shoulder reassuringly, smiling with pride. He loved it when his boys got nervous about receiving presents and thanked God every day that they took after their mother, and were nothing like the spoiled, selfish, demanding, ungrateful child that he had been growing up. The boys exchanged a look, a smile tugging at the corner of their lips and shrugged. Well if you insist† they replied in unison and began tearing the wrapping paper and pretty red bows off of the boxes in front of them. Of course, just because they were not as selfish as Dudley did not mean they didn’t  enjoy  getting presents. They were just humble and genuinely appreciative about it all – reminding Dudley of someone he had not seen for a very long time†¦somebody he was only on Christmas card terms with†¦ No, Dudley would not think about that right now, for fear that the guilt welling up inside of him would cause angry tears to spill down his cheeks. He had to focus, he had to keep an eye open for the sign he had been waiting for since his boys were little – the sign that confirmed his suspicions. As if on cue, a loud hoot sounded off in the distance drawing everyone’s attention to the open Conservatory doors. Regina could not quite understand why Petunia gasped and put a hand over her heart in surprise, or why Vernon began choking on his birthday cake and dropped his brandy glass, and she definitely didn’t understand why her husbands face lit up and his lips curved into a huge smile as he ran to open the doors wider. â€Å"It can’t be, it simply can’t be! Vernon protested in between violent splutters and coughs, his round pig-like face turning every colour of the rainbow as he tried to clear his throat. Just as Dudley reached the doors to open them wider, two owls soared through them – landing gracefully on the dining table in front of Richard and David, an envelope with a strange emble m clasped in each of their beaks. Dudley couldn’t help but smile at the nostalgia of the moment – this was all so familiar. Contrary to what people may believe, Dudley was not surprised at all to have two owls delivering Hogwarts acceptance letters to his children. In fact, he would have been surprised if it hadn’t happened at all! Having grown up with a magical cousin, Dudley knew the signs to look for in children who were beginning to develop magical abilities. Dudley started to suspect something was going on when his boys turned four. He was watching them chase each other around the garden with sticks, pretending to be knights when David pushed his brother over. After he stood back up, Richard proceeded to chase his twin around the garden with green and yellow sparks erupting from the end of his ‘sword’ as the anger coursing through the brains caused his magic to go slightly haywire. The next incident occurred later that year on Christmas Eve. That was the year that Dudley’s Aunt Marge insisted on spending Christmas with them. Unfortunately for the Dursleys, she was also most persistent that she brought her two dogs along: ‘Ripper II’ and ‘Rex’. Regina and her husband could not say they were upset when the two dogs mysteriously went missing on Christmas Eve and reappeared the next day – multicolored and acting as though they had been Confunded, if there was such a thing. Marge didn’t stick around for very long after that. Regina was confused as to how it had happened, especially when her sons couldn’t properly explain it. But Dudley knew better, after all he’d experienced his fair share of unexplainable incidences due to his cousin growing up. Up until now, the years had been filled with incidences like that, giving Dudley more reasons to believe that when the boys turned eleven they would be receiving some kind of acceptance to a school for magic, But now that it was actually happening, Dudley positively speechless. â€Å"Well what are you waiting for boys? Open them! † Petunia prompted from the head of the table next to a dumbfounded Vernon. *** As Dudley remembered that day, he was still shocked at his Mother’s reaction to the letters. It didn’t make sense that she would be so calm about this considering the way she treated Harry whilst he had been growing up. She had been unusually calm about the whole thing, even scolding Vernon for his childish rants about how ridiculous this whole situation was. Dudley was not the only one in the Dursley family who regretted the way they had treated Harry over 20 years ago. Petunia regretted it every second of the day. After the way things had ended up between her and Lily, she knew that she should have known better than to treat Harry that way and was determined not to make the same mistakes with her Grandchildren. Vernon close your mouth please, you are not a codfish† she chastised whilst shaking her head as her husband continued to stand in the entrance, openly gaping at his son. â€Å"H-how can you be taking this so calmly?! Our Grandchildren are freaks Petunia! Fr-â€Å" â€Å"Now stop right there Vernon Dursley. For years I stood by and let you treat our n ephew as though he were dirt beneath our feet. And even though I took part in it, it is probably one of my biggest regrets. You cannot despise people for something that they have absolutely  no  control over. Now weare  going to be supportive. We  are  going to be happy and we  are  going to see our Grandchildren off! Got it? † If Vernon was flabbergasted before, then he was downright astounded now. Never had he seen Petunia act like this towards anything even remotely related to ‘magic’ – it was ridiculous to even think of the word. Magic didn’t exist! But as he took in his wife’s death glares and the way she was pointing her bony well-manicured finger at him, he dared not even to utter those words. â€Å"Dad? † Dudley’s attention was taken away from his Mother’s startling revelation as he felt a soft tugging on his jacket sleeve. What is it Ricky? † he asked his son as he bent down in front of him. His son’s blue eyes were sparkling with concern and his chubby cheeks were puffed out as he pouted. â€Å"I think we’re lost† he admitted as he examined the little piece of paper in his hands. â€Å"Well let’s see here-†Å" Dudley replied, taking the ticket from his son and examining it, â€Å"-It says Platform 9 ? †¦Perhaps if we ask someone? † he asked aloud to no one in particular. â€Å"I already did† came Dave’s voice from beside his mother. I just asked that conducter over there, he asked me ‘if I was taking the piss’† he quoted with an edge of annoyance evident in his voice. Dudley loved that about his boys, rather than wait around for someone to do things for them, they just did it themselves! It made Dudley proud to know that his boys were nothing like he was at their age. â€Å"Language†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Regina cautioned her son as she ruffled his dark hair. He may be leaving home for the first time, but he was still her little boy. â€Å"Sorry Mum† he mumbled in response. â€Å"I’m just annoyed, why can’t anybody help us? † he asked looking around the crowded platform. He had one hand on his trolley which had all of his belongings – including his new snowy white owl, Archimedes, balanced precariously on top – and his other hand grasping his train ticket firmly to save it from blowing away in the cold gusts of wind. â€Å"I can help† Petunia offered with a sigh. Dudley couldn’t help but blink at his mother, was this actually happening? â€Å"I remember the gateway that my sister walked through every year, I can lead the way† she announced in response to her families questions looks. She walked away from her husband and began weaving her way through the bustling crowd. Everyone stared after her before Dudley shrugged his shoulders and beckoned for his family to follow him. He didn’t know what to do, and his wife certainly didn’t – so what else were they supposed to do? They followed Petunia, taking care not to hit anybody with the twin’s overloaded trolleys as they navigated their way through the station. After a few minutes of walking and making sure Vernon hadn’t fainted from his wifes actions, they stopped at a red-brick wall that separated platform 9 and 10. They each huddled around it, exchanging uncertain looks. What happened now? What now Gran? † Dave asked excitedly, his eyes wide and fixed on the wall in front of him. This was about to be his first real experience with magic! â€Å"I-I don’t know to be honest! I never went through the barrier†¦only my parents and L-â€Å" she hadn’t said her sister’s name in years, and she struggled to get the name past the emotional lump in her throat â€Å"-Lily did†. Dudley was both impressed and astonished. His mother never spoke about his late aunt or uncle, or anything related to the world of magic that Petunia had intentionally blocked out for the most part of her life. Right then! Well that’s enough of  that  nonsense! Come along Petunia, we’re leavi-â€Å" â€Å"Big-D? Is that you?! † came a rather familiar voice from behind them. As Vernon turned around, his eyes widened to the size of cup saucers and popped out of his head. Walking towards them was another family. One lead by somebody that Vernon had purposefully hated ever since he could remember first laying eyes on him. A person who Vernon had neither seen nor spoke to for almost 20 years. Harry Potter. Of course this was not the same Harry Potter that Vernon remembered. The man walking towards them was much happier than he had been in his youth – as if a weight had been lifted off his shoulders. His dark hair was combed to the side, although a few messy strands fell into his Emerald-green eyes. He had also filled out over the years, sporting a pair of strong arms and a little bit of stubble on his well-defined jaw. He wore a simple pair of jeans, a dark collared shirt and a black leather jacket over the top to protect him from the cold. Although he was dressed casually and his hair was blowing around in the blustery wind, Vernon had never seen his nephew look happier – or better for that matter. Petunia couldn’t believe her eyes, not just when it came to Harry but the stunning red-head by his side or the children trailing after them. As Petunia surveyed the lady who was scrutinizing Petunia in return, she couldn’t help but find this somewhat ironic. Here was Harry, a grown man, practically a clone of his Father (except the eyes, he had Lily’s eyes) with a beautiful fiery red-head at his side. ‘Must be a thing with Potter men’ Petunia reasoned as she saw Harry step closer to Dudley. â€Å"You are Dudley Dursley aren’t you? † Harry asked curiously. He and the rest of the Potters had been approaching the barrier to Platform 9 ? when he heard Vernon’s irreplaceable grumbling voice, and he figured that the man standing between him and his aunt must have been Dudley. Unlike his father, Dudley had lost weight over the years. He was still a good head taller than Harry was, but he was in shape! No trace of the chubby whale-like boy that Harry remembered from his childhood remained in the man standing before him. His features were also a lot kinder, much to Harry’s surprise. ‘Are those†¦wrinkles around his eyes? From smiling? From  laughing?! Surely not, not on Dudley Dursley’ Harry rationalized in his head. â€Å"It’s me Harry† Dudley responded in a dazed sort of voice as he stared open-mouthed at his cousin. Dudley had absolutely no idea what to do when you met someone you hadn’t seen in what felt like a lifetime. So he did the first thing that came to mind – he extended his right hand in a handshake gesture. Harrys eyes moved between Dudley’s face and his hand. His face, his hand. His face, his hand, and over and over again. He had no idea what to do either in a situation like this, but he knew that a handshake wasn’t the right thing. So he did the first thing that came to mind – he extended his arms and wrapped them around Dudley’s shoulder and pulled him into a manly embrace, patting him on the back as he did so. To say Dudley was taken aback was putting it mildly. The two men hadn’t even breathed a word to eachother in years and yet they were acting like they were family! ‘What are you thinking you numpty, ofcourse you’re family! He’s your cousin for God’s sake! ’ the voice inside his head reprimanded him. ‘My cousin†¦Ã¢â‚¬â„¢ Dudley thought to himself, and then the walls in Dudley’s mind came down and the memories came flooding back to him. All of the times he had bullied Harry. All of the times he had pushed him around. All of the lost opportunities he had to tell him that he actually didn’t hate him, that he was grateful to him for saving his life all of those years ago. An emotional boulder began to form in his throat and he had to blink to hold back the guilty tears. He regained movement of his arms and embraced his cousin back, trying to communicate without words how sorry he was. How much of a Prat he felt. Neither of them knew how long they had stood their like that, but Harry immediately felt better when he pulled away from his cousin and smiled up at him. Ye, Dudley had been a Prat when they had been growing up together. But judging from how he had just responded to Harry’s hug, he felt pretty bad about it. Dudley’s eyes began to well up with tears that he dare not let fall, he was ashamed to admit that this was the first time he had ever shown public affection for his cousin. Somebody cleared their throat to Dudley’s left and he turned to see Regina standing there with a shy, awkward smile on her face. Regina didn’t need to be told who this person was that had just hugged her husband – she could tell from the way that he and his parents were acting that this was Harry Potter. Also, she remembered Dudley mentioning once how much little David resembled his estranged cousin and now that she saw him – she realized it was true. She stepped forward and like her husband had done only minutes before, extended her small, pale hand to greet him in a handshake. â€Å"I’m Regina Dursley, I can’t tell you how very happy I am to finally be meeting you Harry† she said with as much sincerity as she could muster in this emotional moment. Harry took in the woman by Dudley’s side. ‘Bloody hell, I guess she is the cause of his happiness†¦who’d have thought Dudley would settle down with someone who was genuinely nice?! Harry thought to himself. As Harry grasped her hand in his own, he realized that this woman might have just been Dudley’s saving grace. Truthfully she was very beautiful, on the inside as well as the out. Her blonde hair hung in ringlets over her shoulders, framing her heart-shaped face and stunning gr een eyes. Her lips were a soft shade of pink to compliment the baby-pink scarf she had wrapped around her neck to stop her rosy cheeks from flushing anymore with the chilly air. As dazzling as she was, she was also incredibly natural looking, especially her warm and friendly smile. It’s a pleasure to meet you too. I’m Harry, Harry Potter. And this is my wife-â€Å" he motioned for the pretty red head to step forward and she did so happily, taking Regina’s hand in her own and shaking enthusiastically. â€Å"-And his better half† she teased her husband with a coy smile and turned her head back to Regina. â€Å"I’m Ginny, it’s nice to finally meet the lovely lady who’s been sending us Christmas cards all these years† she remarked playfully. â€Å"Actually, it was Dudley who sent you the cards every year Ginny – I just took them to the post-office† Regina replied with a smile as she looked up at her husband. She said it as a joke, but there was no denying the truth that filled her words. Dudley looked down at his feet and shuffled from side to side awkwardly. ‘Trust the wives to bring up the Christmas cards and make things awkward’ he mentally mumbled to himself. â€Å"Really Dudley? You were the one th-â€Å" â€Å"Dad who’s that? † Harry was interrupted by a curious voice and he looked around to find it’s source. He couldn’t contain his startled gasp when he saw a small boy peaking his head around his Mothers body to get a look at Harry. The boy looked exactly like Dudley when he had been young: chubby cheeks, blue eyes and a head of short, blonde wavy hair. Sweetheart it’s not polite to interrupt† Regina lectured in a motherly voice, running her fingers through her son’s hair while she said it. Harry could tell that Regina was strict, but very gentle and incredibly caring. He had to admit he liked that about her. â€Å"â €™Dad’ eh? † Harry remarked as he smirked at his cousin. â€Å"It’s alright Regina, really –â€Å" Harry insisted as he knelt down so that he was at eye-level with the boy. â€Å"Hello, I’m your Uncle Harry – what’s your name? † he asked with a smile. He couldn’t believe that he was actually meeting his nephew – could he call him that? I’m Richard Dursley† the little boy proudly announced and smiled up at his Dad. â€Å"Well it’s very nice to meet you Richard, this is your Auntie Ginny† Harry introduced his wife who was also smiling down at the little boy. â€Å"Guys! Come on over, don’t be shy! † Harry called over his shoulder to his own children who were huddled around the trolleys a few feet away. A tall boy with a self-assured smirk and mischievous sparkling eyes was the first to step forward. His shaggy brown hair swayed in the breeze and he flicked it out of his eyes – not dissimilar as to how girls in shampoo commercials do – and stood inbetween his Mum and Dad. Brilliant – I could use a new cousin to torture, the other ones were getting boring† James said before his mother swatted him over the head. â€Å"Ouch, I’m just joking! Nice to meet you mate, I’m James† he said with a chuckle as he took in his little cousins shy face. James smirked when he held out his hand for the little guy to shake, but he looked hesitant to do so. â€Å"Come on, I don’t bite† he joked and smiled when Richard reached out his hand slowly and took James’s hand in his. â€Å"See? That wasn’t so hard now was it? † he asked in a light-hearted voice. Richard shook his head, smiling too. He had always wanted a big cousin. â€Å"You should write a book James, ‘How to Freak People Out in Ten Syllables or Less’† somebody scoffed from behind James who was pushed out of the way as a miniature version of Harry smirked at his older brother. â€Å"Ignore this numpty, I always do. I’m Albus, Albus Severus Potter† the boy introduced himself. James couldn’t help but roll his eyes – why did his brother  always  have to say his entire name when ever he met someone? â€Å"I’m Ricky† Richard replied, excited to be meeting someone who looked the same age as him. â€Å"And this little rascal is L- Harry where’s Lily? Ginny asked, sounding worried as her eyes darted around the platform looking for her daughter. â€Å"I don’t know love, where did you last see her? † Harry responded, copying his wife and looking around frantically for his little Princess. â€Å"She was over by the tro- Lily Luna Pot ter! What have I told you about petting animals that  don’tbelong to you? † Ginny demanded as she cocked an eyebrow at her daughter and crossed her arms. â€Å"But Mummy isn’t he lovely? † Lily chirped back at her mother as she reached up on tiptoe to put her fingers through the bars of the Snowy owl’s cage. Yes darling he is, but he’s not yours – wait, who’s is he? † Ginny asked looking to Regina and Dudley for an explanation. Harry followed his wife’s line of vision and his breath caught in his throat when he saw the owl. It reminded him so much of Hedwig! â€Å"He’s mines. His name is Archimedes. I’m David† a timid voice registered in Harry’s ears and his jaw practically hit off of the floor as another boy stepped around his Father and stood infront of Harry. Harry couldn’t believe it – he simply couldn’t. Where the other boy looked like a smaller version of Dudl ey, this one looked so much like Harry had done when he was young. Dark brown hair, with even darker shades spread throughout his messy hair which fell into his eyes – much the same as James’s did. Oh Merlin, those eyes! They were Harry’s eyes! Lily’s eyes! Petunia’s sisters eyes! As odd as this was, Harry couldn’t help but find it sweet at the same time. Dudley’s boys were loving, caring, kind miniature versions of themselves when they had been this age. Albus couldn’t quite believe it either. Besides his Father, he had never met anyone else with his Grandma Lily’s eyes before. â€Å"Wow, we’re identical! † the two boys said in unison as they looked at eachother for the first time. Ginny couldn’t suppress her watery smile as she was reminded of a young version of Fred and George, and Dudley and Harry exchanged knowing smiles as they watched their sons interact with eachother – their conversation growing more animated as Ricky joined their conversation too. It was as if the Universe was giving Dudley and Harry a second chance through their sons. That’s when something else clicked in Harry’s brain and his head snapped around to take in the sight of the trolleys, loaded with two trunks with the Hogwarts symbol on them. Could it be? â€Å"Are y- are you two- what I mean to ask is, are you two w-w-wi-â€Å" Yes† Dudley answered for him. He could just imagine how big a shock this must be to Harry. Just the thought alone of two wizards being spawned by the son of Vernon Dursley was enough to make you want to faint and then burst out laughing. â€Å"Well I’ll be†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Harry replied in a far away voice. He certainly di dn’t see this one coming. â€Å"It’s been a while Harry† Petunia acknowledged from her spot over by the barrier. Harry didn’t quite know how to react. He’d just met his two nephews, reunited with his cousin, met his cousins wife and now he was running into Petunia too? His head just might explode. â€Å"It has Aunt Petunia, you’re looking well though† he replied somewhat reserved. He was wary around Petunia given the way she had always felt about magic. â€Å"Thankyou dear, you are too† she knew it wasn’t much, but hopefully she was on the right track to some sort of reconciliation with her nephew. ‘She’s calling me ‘dear’? Blimey, someone must have spiked her morning tea with happy juice. Hmmm maybe she has changed’ Harry thought to himself as the corners of his mouth turned up into a small smile. Petunia smiled back and was about to keep up the conversation, when she was rudely cut off. â€Å"Well where is this flipping train then? I want to see it! I thought the boys were supposed to be getting on it!? † Vernon exclaimed in a rather huffy voice as he stamped his foot on the ground and crossed his arms like a moody child. â€Å"Hello to you too Uncle Vernon. And well that depends, you can come onto Platform 9 ? if you want to. But do you believe in magic? † Harry asked, knowing fine well what the answer would be, but it couldn’t hurt to try could it? â€Å"There’s no such  thing  as magic boy! Vernon retorted, his face turning purple with frustration. â€Å"I’ll take that as a no then. Ginny? Would you mind escorting the kids through the barrier with Regina and my aunt please? I’ll take Dudley through† â€Å"Come on then Ricky! I can’t wait to tell you all about Quidditch! † James called to his little cousin who’s face was the very definition of confusion as he closed his eyes and followed James through the barrier between Platforms 9 and 10. â€Å"What’s Quidditch? † was the last thing Dudley heard his son ask before he disappeared infront of his very eyes. Come on Dave, I’ll take you through† Albus offered as he and Dave lined their trollies up alongside eachother and raced to get through the barrier before the other one could. Ginny, Regina and Petunia smiled at the boys antics and Ginny offered her arm to Regina. â€Å"Shall we then? † she asked kindly, motioning towards the brick wall. Regina was a little nervous but excited at the same time. This was her first proper experience with magic. â€Å"We shall† she replied playfully. Before the women were at the wall, Ginny turned back around to face Petunia. â€Å"Aren't you coming Mrs. Dursley? Ginny inquired. She no longer felt the same hostility she had before to the woman, she seemed ready to make amends after all these years. â€Å"I think I am. You know, I always wanted to walk through this barrier. For some reason, it feels like it’s the right thing to do† Petunia stated with a smile and followed her daughter-in-law and her nephews wife, giving Harry one last smile before disappearing through the veil of magic. â€Å"Ready Dudley? † Harry asked, excitement coursing through his veins. â€Å"H-Harry, I don’t know how† Dudley admitted, sounding a bit dejected and scared. What if the barrier didn’t let him through? Harry gave his cousin’s shoulders a reassuring squeeze and smiled up at him. â€Å"Don’t worry Dudley, we’ll do it together† Harry assured him. Dudley wiped away a sentimental tear that spilled over his bottom eyelid and down his cheek – this is what he had been wanting for him and his cousin for almost 20 years. He nodded and that was all the encouragement Harry needed to lead Dudley through the barrier. He kept his eyes closed the whole time, but when he heard a whole new set of noises and felt the steam in the air, Dudley opened his eyes. He honestly couldn’t believe it. Families were huddled around the platform in groups, saying their last goodbyes. Owls soared through the air and through the open windows of the train to meet their owners. The train, how could Dudley not ogle at the train?! It was huge, shiny and incredible to look at. It’s red glossy paint sparkled in the light of the old-fashioned oil lanterns that lined the walls of the platform and it appeared to radiate a sense of warmth, of welcoming. Dudley couldn’t believe that he was finally here – in Harry’s world. A world that was far better than he ever could have imagined. Dudley’s marveling of the world around him was interrupted by a grunting sound and a loud thud behind him, and he and Harry turned around – unable to contain their laughter. Vernon had apparently felt left out, standing out on the Muggle platform by himself and had felt the need to run through the barrier with his eyes closed – meaning he tripped over his own feet and face planted the ground on the other side of the barrier. Witches and Wizards looked with concern at the odd man, who lifted his head and took in his surroundings – his eyes boggling and his mouth hanging open. L-looks like Da-dad believes in m-magic after all! † Dudley managed to say inbetween outbursts of hysteric laughter. â€Å"What? Oh no, that was just something I made up. The barrier will let anyone through that has a right to – he’s a grandparent of two students, so it let him through no problem. I just wanted to get the satisfaction of hearing Vernon Dursley admi t that magic was real, althought I'm pretty sure that man will go to his grave swearing it's not – even after this! † Harry confessed and wiped away the tears on his cheeks from laughing so much. That day, Harry and Dudley reunited and waved goodbye to their children. Dudley was thankful that Albus was starting school that year too, at least Ricky and David would have someone they knew in their year. That was also the day that Harry and Dudley realized something. Standing with their families, on the platform of the Wizarding world, together after all of these years as family should be – both men had never been happier. If two people could come together after almost 20 years and put aside their differences like this, then it definately proved something – something that Vernon would still refuse to admit. Magic definitely did exist.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on Leavin’ On A Jet Plane

Recently I was on an air plane traveling to San Diego and I began to look around and notice the people in the cramped confines of the Boeing 707. I found out that the seats behind the over wing exits have less leg room than seats forward of the over wing exit. There are also great differences between the people from Amarillo to Albuquerque and the people from Albuquerque to San Diego. The staff on every flight was different than the last. What I’m trying to show is that people from different areas are as different as the areas they come from, and their true colors tend to show better while in mass transit. On the flight from Amarillo, which from this point will be referred to as AMA, to Albuquerque, which from this point on will be known as ABQ, I found that the people were generally pretty friendly and considerate. And by considerate I mean most of them didn’t lean their seat back so that you couldn’t use your try table, â€Å"which needs to remain in the full upright and locked position during take off and landing†, and the people behind you were not shoving things into the seat back pocket in front of you, constantly jabbing you in the ribs. On the other hand other people from ABQ to San Diego are rude and obnoxious. They tended to do all of the things that I mentioned above that the people from ABQ did not do. These in considerate thing just bug me and if you Want a tip if someone leans their seat back you take the air vent and direct over their head that will usually do it. I used it on the way back. The flight staff on the flight from AMA to ABQ was subdued partially because it was an afternoon flight and they were probably tired but usually they are professional and attentive. On the flight from ABQ to San Diego, that’s another story. They weren’t loud and obnoxious but they left a little bit of professionalism and tended to have a little more fun with the 137 some odd passengers that made up that over crowded flig... Free Essays on Leavin’ On A Jet Plane Free Essays on Leavin’ On A Jet Plane Recently I was on an air plane traveling to San Diego and I began to look around and notice the people in the cramped confines of the Boeing 707. I found out that the seats behind the over wing exits have less leg room than seats forward of the over wing exit. There are also great differences between the people from Amarillo to Albuquerque and the people from Albuquerque to San Diego. The staff on every flight was different than the last. What I’m trying to show is that people from different areas are as different as the areas they come from, and their true colors tend to show better while in mass transit. On the flight from Amarillo, which from this point will be referred to as AMA, to Albuquerque, which from this point on will be known as ABQ, I found that the people were generally pretty friendly and considerate. And by considerate I mean most of them didn’t lean their seat back so that you couldn’t use your try table, â€Å"which needs to remain in the full upright and locked position during take off and landing†, and the people behind you were not shoving things into the seat back pocket in front of you, constantly jabbing you in the ribs. On the other hand other people from ABQ to San Diego are rude and obnoxious. They tended to do all of the things that I mentioned above that the people from ABQ did not do. These in considerate thing just bug me and if you Want a tip if someone leans their seat back you take the air vent and direct over their head that will usually do it. I used it on the way back. The flight staff on the flight from AMA to ABQ was subdued partially because it was an afternoon flight and they were probably tired but usually they are professional and attentive. On the flight from ABQ to San Diego, that’s another story. They weren’t loud and obnoxious but they left a little bit of professionalism and tended to have a little more fun with the 137 some odd passengers that made up that over crowded flig...

Monday, October 21, 2019

The Discarded People essays

The Discarded People essays The principles of the modern world are variable to every individual. William Shakespeares Twelfth Night celebrates the idiosyncrasies of misplaced love and ends happily with every worthy character finding joyful resolution. On the other hand, Samuel Becketts Waiting for Godot illustrates the tragedy of missed opportunities and concludes with the characters bound in a circle of habit. While both plays differ greatly, they feature socially-rooted themes of love and friendship which create unique types of relationships. However, one cannot help but feel some deception and unfairness as people are rejected if they do not conform to cultural mores. Both plays illustrate the bipolar spirit of the modern world where a persons destiny ultimately resides in their social position. A clear theme in both plays is that of chaos. They both feature extremely erratic plots which, at times, leave the reader dazed. The plays differ in how they deal with the disorder that inundates the storylines. For example, Twelfth Night continues to advance through its chaos. By the end of the play, the problems have solved themselves in one way or another. Waiting for Godot never moves forward as it stays stuck in an endless circular day. The pandemonium is only heightened by numerous references to insanity, messengers, and ambiguous identities that plague the lives of the characters in both plays. The idea of mental instability is featured in both plays. In Twelfth Night, Malvolio is branded mad after he follows the false recommendations outlined in Marias forged letter. The level of disorder is raised as he is maliciously imprisoned by Sir Toby. At times, Malvolio seems mad as he pleads for understanding from Feste. His madness is one of immense distress and anxiety. In fact, his madness seems to stem from a sense of megalomania. He only strives for Olivias love so that he can obtain a higher social status. At one p...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Learning Object Oriented Programming With Delphi

Learning Object Oriented Programming With Delphi Online Delphi OOP Course submitted by John Barrow Part 1 Introduction to OO basics Chapter 1Chapter 2Chapter 3 Part 2 Introduction to class inheritance Chapter 4Chapter 5 Part 3 Programmer defined classes and objects Chapter 6Chapter 7 Part 4 Accessing an object and its data Chapter 8Chapter 9Chapter 10 Part 5 The Sender parameter and substitution Chapter 11 Part 6 Introducing type inheritance Chapter 12Chapter 13Chapter 14 Part 7 Using and abusing inheritance Chapter 15Chapter 16 Part 8 Indirection Chapter 17Chapter 18 Part 9 Association Composition Chapter 19 Chapter 20Chapter 21 Part 10 Two Patterns Using Composition Chapter 22Chapter 23 Part 11 Some Patterns for varying behaviour Chapter 24 Part 12 Bidirectional links, Callbacks and Linking Classes Chapter 25 Part 13 Factory Patterns Chapter 26 Part 14 A Decorator Chapter 27

Saturday, October 19, 2019

The New Testament and its influence on Homosexuality Term Paper

The New Testament and its influence on Homosexuality - Term Paper Example The Bible is a religious scripture and is the foundation of Christianity around the world. Bible ‘s new testament has laid down certain principles regarding the human lifestyle, ethical and moral standards one need to follow to prove to be god – loving person. Considering homosexuality, one can see that Bible points it to be a most abominable sin. Homosexuality is in no way regarded as a favorable sexual activity by Jesus or other prophets. Primarily, it is Moses who did condemn homosexuality and categorized it as a capital crime. Apart from him, Apostle Paul considered homosexuals worthy of death penalty. Even though homosexual behavior was seen among people of Bible era, these were practiced secretly,Homosexuality was seen as a social taboo and people looked at them as sinners and atrocious personalities.The New Testament specifically accepts a marriage between a man and a woman as a perfect sexual union. It is detestable to engage in sexual activity with same sex peop le as it is against God and nature. Bible recommends that by natural selection men are supposed to unite with women and anything against it is sin and unspiritual behavior. There are of evil nature and does not fit into the category of law – abiding citizens.Homosexual acts are considered to be extremely shameful according to Bible and these individuals are observed as immoral and sinners. The homosexuals were seen as indulgers of sin and were given death penalty or other punishments which were heinous. Homosexual acts are seen as ritual transgression and their blood is interpreted as guilty. Not only Bible, even Hebrew scripture view homosexuality as abomination. Both the parties involved in this unnatural act are given punishment without excuse. As prisons were absent in those days, capital punishment was the answer to all despicable crimes. It is described how Gods hate homosexuals and it is classified as a practice completely against natural law of God. 2â€Å"Whether or not a person accepts what the Bible says concerning this subject, he will have to

Friday, October 18, 2019

Therapeutic Nurse Patient Relationship Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Therapeutic Nurse Patient Relationship - Essay Example According to Wright (2006), the relationship is mutual, founded on trust, respect and professional intimacy. For a therapeutic patient nurse patient relationship to function effectively, the nurse should use his/her professional powers appropriately. Other people responsible for the patient’s wellbeing such as family members or friends also form an important component of the therapeutic nurse patient relationship. Duration of therapeutic nurse patient relationship varies, depending on the health needs of the patient and it expires once the patient recovers. Moreover, it also depends on the possibility of having to take care of the patient once again in future. However, the relationship between the nurse and the patient’s friends or family is not limited to the duration of care and may continue after the client is no longer under the care of the particular nurse. In therapeutic nurse patient relationship, the nurse is not only responsible for establishing the association with the client but also in maintaining it. According to Barry (1996), maintaining the relationship requires professional application of nursing knowledge, skills and behaviors. In healthcare setting, therapeutic nurse client relationship comprises four main elements, namely trust, power, respect and professional intimacy (DeLaune & Ladner, 2002). ... Power is the other defining element of the patient client relationship and NANB (2011) argues that it is tilted in favor of the nurse. The registered nurse possesses more power and authority than the patient due to the higher position he or she holds in the healthcare system and his/her inherent specialized skills in nursing practice. This places the nurse in a more influential position of determining the nature of relationships with the client and other healthcare providers in a healthcare setting. Moreover, the nurse is in a better position of accessing sensitive information relating to the patient under his or her care (CNO, 2004). The manner in which the nurse utilizes these powers determines the nature of relationship with the clients. Therefore, it is important for the nurse to apply these powers appropriately to promote good working relationship with the patient and attainment of expected health outcomes. This ensures that the relative powerlessness of the patient is not taken advantage of and the client’s healthcare needs are met. Trust is another element of a therapeutic nurse patient relationship and it is shown by the confidence and faith that the client has about the nurse ability to cater for his or her health needs. According to Hubert (1998), the patient expects the nurse to apply his or her professional skills appropriately and exhibit compassionate attitude so that the client can develop trust on the nurse ability to take care of him or her. Therefore, the ability of a nurse to win the trust of the client is very important, considering the relative powerlessness of the patient in the nurse patient relationship. In order for the nurse to gain the trust of the

Good performance appraisal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Good performance appraisal - Essay Example Consequently, some employers use pure objective measures for workers with entry-level or repetitive jobs. Performance, therefore, is a function of executing (or not executing) some specific task (Boxall & Purcell, 2003, p. 14). However, some jobs such as those of attorneys and data analysts cannot be measured easily. Therefore, employers will identify measurement categories – for example, teamwork, customer service or professionalism. Survivors offer a numeric score, which represents the employer’s perceived element of categorization, but the question whether a rating is correct is a matter of interpretation. Objective measures are effective in situations where each worker can be assessed directly and his or her performance compared with that of another worker. However, objective measures are ineffective where supervisors distill sophisticated processes into simple scores, which may not be meaningful in reality (Pauwe & Boselie, 2005, p. 80). Subjective measures are effective at allowing supervisors to exercise judgment over a worker’s performance in sophisticated systems. However, if the worker/ employer relationship is strained, workers may view negative ratings as either unfair or punitive (Stiles et al., 1997, p. 59). Some employers use a hybrid system of evaluation – some measures are subjective, and some are objective (Pauwe & Boselie, 2005, p. 74). Because there is no purely right way of performance appraisal, managers should develop systems of assessment that match the standards of the industries in which they operate and typical employee works (Pauwe & Boselie, 2005, p. 77). For instance, a company engaging in the sale of cell phones might measure the sum of dollars sold by the sales representative and give them a score based on whether they achieved certain goals. On the other hand, a marketing agency might obtain feedback from the clients

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Unfair Competition from Countries without International Labour Laws Term Paper

Unfair Competition from Countries without International Labour Laws - Term Paper Example This research paper examines that there have been arguments for the imposition of free trade among all member countries taking part in international trade.   These have been increasingly believed to be of benefit, especially to the developing countries. To begin with, markets get liberalized from the interference of government. This is important because the government does not have a direct contribution to the prevailing prices in the economy due to actions such as subsidies or even tariffs. The involvement of government in the setting of prices may lead to market failure arising from forced priced that have been set without due regard to the natural forces of demand and supply, which work together to determine the prices of goods and services.  This research paper examines that there have been arguments for the imposition of free trade among all member countries taking part in international trade.   These have been increasingly believed to be of benefit, especially to the deve loping countries. To begin with, markets get liberalized from the interference of government. This is important because the government does not have a direct contribution to the prevailing prices in the economy due to actions such as subsidies or even tariffs. The involvement of government in the setting of prices may lead to market failure arising from forced priced that have been set without due regard to the natural forces of demand and supply, which work together to determine the prices of goods and services.

What is the connection between fashion and modernityUse examples from Essay

What is the connection between fashion and modernityUse examples from between 1851 and 1939 to support your argument - Essay Example Elizabeth says "Fashion" is a term that crackles up many diverse descriptions, the immense preponderance of which is individual and simplifying. Some of the foundation I comprise here do not yet use the term; Western or eastern frequently choose in place for "costume" or "outfit," and alter their provisos with adjectives such as "cultural," "nationalized," or "customary." Western learning’s of fashion frequently only engage "Haute fashion design," or "soaring fashion," and leave out ordinary working class involvements with clothes; this has started to transfer of late. Over the precedent decade, a lot of feminist theorists have happened to be appearing at womens day-by-day relations with fashion and physical decoration. I support my own examinations with this most current drift in fashion; I describe fashion as a customer action occupied in by any human being who shops for, obtain, and wears outfits. Certainly, there is variety in terminologies and thoughtfulness of fashion co mmotion; and community of changeable racial, class, national, and religious surroundings unquestionably illustrate diverse understandings from their own fashion arrangements. The resources I have accumulated here agree with fashion utilization in a multiplicity of contexts, even though the field is positively conquered by Western world. It is as well significant to remind that most of my own study benefits are centered around modernism as it is created through clothing, technique, and fashion; consequently, much of the substance move towards fashion from a modern and feminist viewpoint. Modernity is a word used to explain the situation of being "Modern". Since the word itself "Modern" is used to explain a broad range of eras, modernity must be taken in background (Lehmann, 2000, Pg 141-142). Modern can signify all of post-medieval European olden times, in the environment of seperating

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Unfair Competition from Countries without International Labour Laws Term Paper

Unfair Competition from Countries without International Labour Laws - Term Paper Example This research paper examines that there have been arguments for the imposition of free trade among all member countries taking part in international trade.   These have been increasingly believed to be of benefit, especially to the developing countries. To begin with, markets get liberalized from the interference of government. This is important because the government does not have a direct contribution to the prevailing prices in the economy due to actions such as subsidies or even tariffs. The involvement of government in the setting of prices may lead to market failure arising from forced priced that have been set without due regard to the natural forces of demand and supply, which work together to determine the prices of goods and services.  This research paper examines that there have been arguments for the imposition of free trade among all member countries taking part in international trade.   These have been increasingly believed to be of benefit, especially to the deve loping countries. To begin with, markets get liberalized from the interference of government. This is important because the government does not have a direct contribution to the prevailing prices in the economy due to actions such as subsidies or even tariffs. The involvement of government in the setting of prices may lead to market failure arising from forced priced that have been set without due regard to the natural forces of demand and supply, which work together to determine the prices of goods and services.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

How the Arab spring affects the economy in the countries facing extrem Scholarship Essay

How the Arab spring affects the economy in the countries facing extrem changes Egypt , Yemen , Tunisia , Syria Libya - Scholarship Essay Example hus in Egypt risks related to external financing have shot up significantly, with dwindling direct foreign investment and negativity of net portfolio flows. The resuscitation interventions initiated by the Egyptian Central Bank to rescue the Egyptian pound from the increasing inflation and capital outflows have resulted in shocking decline in net international reserves. Libya, on the other hand, appears to be the worst hit as the escalation of the conflict grounded all the principal economic activities such as oil sales. It has been estimated that total costs in regard to the fiscal balance have been in excess of $6.5 billion. A sharp decrease in oil production, decline in local consumption as well as decrease in buying power have led to decline in the economy (Long-Term Ratings On Egypt Lowered To B On Weaker Sovereign Policy Flexibility; Outlook Negative, 10 February 2012). According to the Arab Spring Economic Report (October 24th, 2011), in Syria the economic situation is expected to be worse as protests are still going on in the face of brutal crackdown. It is expected that the GDP of the country will fall nose dive by two percent as a result of foreign direct investments, decline in tourism, dwindling public investment as well as effects of trade embargos. Looking at the economic situation in Yemen, the picture is not rosy as people living below the poverty index are expected to hit the 15 percent mark. This is due to devaluation of the currency and increase in prices of essential commodities. It is also projected that public expenditure will also drop by about $600 million as a result of weak and poor governance. The Tunisian revolution has also hit the economy of the country very hard as the most important sectors of the economy are barely surviving, thus mining; tourism and fishing are not bringing

Monday, October 14, 2019

Health Insurance and Medicare Essay Example for Free

Health Insurance and Medicare Essay I. Introduction The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) was signed into law on March 23, 2010 by President Barack Obama. Along with the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act (HCERA), it represents the momentous transformation of the U.S. health care system. Its main goal is to decrease the amount of uninsured citizens as well as to reduce the overall costs of health care. It is a vastly complex reform that will affect many people in aspects of their health care, costs, and the country. There are many opinions about how this reform will affect the nation, some saying it will make us better off, others saying we will be worse off, and those who do not think it will make a difference. But regardless of these opinions, what the majority does agree on is that these laws may be difficult to understand and that many are not even aware of these changes. There are many problems that the health care industry is facing. The cost of health care may arguably be the most important factor that people are concerned about. Many think that health care policies and premiums are too expensive. Coupled with the fact that our population is aging, meaning that there will be more elder people with more health problems, health care costs are rapidly growing and take up a huge chunk of the federal budget. There are also many loopholes within the current health care system. Individuals who are looking to buy insurance can be denied based on their pre-existing conditions. Some insurance policies even have a lifetime limit on benefits. What all these examples basically sum up is that the people who are in need of health care the most are those who are also the most unlikely to be insured, or are under insured. In an attempt to address these issues, the PPACA and Reconciliation Act were established. The Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act was enacted to amend the PPACA. It is divided into two titles, one addressing the health reform and the other addressing student loan reform. It makes changes to some parts of the PPACA. That is why many people commonly refer to the overall health reform as just the PPACA. The most noted change this brings  is that it requires almost all citizens to have health care insurance, or to pay a penalty. Some examples and cases regarding this issue will be discussed later on. The PPACA also considerably expands public insurance as well as funds private insurance coverage. It will close loopholes such as setting life time limits as well as making it illegal to reject coverage for those with pre-existing conditions. In terms of affordability, the PPACA will expand Medicaid to cover low-income families and individuals across the nation. It also aims to cut down and reconstruct Medicare spending, which will be the main focus of this paper. II. The Impacts of the PPACA and HCERA on Medicare and Health Physicians The PPACA is made up of 10 titles. I will be discussing selected provisions in Titles II, III, IV, and V regarding Medicare. These include program modifications and payment to Medicare’s fee-for-service program, the Medicare Advantage, prescription drug programs, Medicare’s payment process, changes to address, waste, fraud, and abuse, and other miscellaneous Medicare changes. As for the HCERA, the first title has provisions detailing health care and revenues. Subtitle B of Title I involves provisions that change provisions PPACA relevant to those listed above (Medicare Advantage, fee-for-service, and prescription drug programs). Subtitle D has provisions regarding decreasing fraud, abuse, and waste in Medicare. Subtitle E discuses revenue related provisions such as a provision that changes Medicare tax provision in PPACA. A. Impacts on Medicare According to the Congressional Budget Office (CBO), the provisions in PPACA as amended by the HCERA will reduce direct spending by an estimated $390 billion (CRS, 2010). The provisions that are predicted to produce the largest savings include the following: (1) developing an Independent Payment Advisory Board to create changes in Medicare payment rates is presumed to save about $16 billion (2) decreasing Medicare payments to hospitals that aid a vast number of low-income patients, is expected to reduce expenditures by an estimated $22 billion (3) permanent deductions to Medicare’s fee-for-service payment rates (4) changing the high-income adjustment for Part B premiums, and (5) making maximum payment rates in Medicare Advantage closer to spending in fee-for-service Medicare. However, it is critical to  note that these are just estimates. Medicare is made up of four parts that are each accountable for paying for various benefits, dependent on different eligibility criteria. Under traditional Medicare, Part A and Part B services are usually paid by a fee-for-service basis (services supplied to a patient is reimbursed through a separate payment). Part A supplies coverage for skilled nursing facility (SNF) services, inpatient hospital services, hospice care, and home health care, which are subject to some limitations. Provisions that reduce Part A spending make up a large part of the savings related to this legislation through either payment changes or constraining payment updates. PPACA will alter Medicare’s payment updates to Part A hospitals to account for cost savings, which will significantly reduce Medicare spending in the next 10 years. Under PPACA (Title III Subtitle A Section 3001), beginning for discharges on October 1, 2012 hospitals will acquire value-based incentive payments from Medicare. The first year of the value based purchasing (VBP) program will aim at collecting data and assessing performance. Starting in 2013, adjustments to hospital payments will be made based on performance by the VBP program. There will also be VBP standards established (i.e. levels of improvement and accomplishments), as well as a method for assessing how hospitals perform. Hospitals with the highest score will obtain the biggest VBP payments. Those that meet or go beyond the standards are able to receive an increased DRG payment for each discharge within the year. However, to provide for these VBP incentive payments the DRG payments will be reduced by a certain percentage: 1.0% in 2013; 1.25% in 2014; 1.5% in 2015; 1.75% in 2016; and 2.0% in 2017. An alternate choice to receive covered benefits would be Medicare Advantage (MA). Private health plans are paid a per person amount to supply all Medicare-covered benefits to those who enroll in the plan under MA. The payments made to MA plans are decided by comparing the maximum amount Medicare will pay for benefits with a plan’s cost of providing those required benefits. If the plan’s cost is below the maximum, then it is paid  the cost plus a rebate equal to 75% of the difference to the maximum. But if the plan’s cost is above the maximum, then it is paid and must also charge the enrollee the difference between the cost and the maximum. PPACA modifies how the maximum payment is decided. Beginning in 2012, it will implement benchmarks (maximum amount Medicare will pay for benefits) calculated as a percentage of per capita FFS Medicare spending. It will also increase benchmarks depending on the quality of the plan. Those with a high quality rating will get an increase in their benchmark while new plans or those with lesser enrollments may also qualify to get an increase. PPACA will also vary the plan rebates based on quality with new rebates set from 50% to 70%. In regards to changes affecting Medicare’s prescription drug benefits, the health reform makes a few changes to the Medicare Part D program. PPACA increases the premiums held by higher income enrollees. The income standards are set to be at the same manner and level as that in Part B. Beginning in 2011, those enrolled in Part D will have a 50% discount for drugs during the coverage gap. In extension, HCERA will supply a rebate of $250 to those who enter the gap in 2010. Hopefully this phases out the â€Å"donut hole† (coverage gap) by slowly lessening the cost-sharing and coverage gap for generic and brand name drugs. Medicare’s finances are operated through two trust funds, the Hospital Insurance (HI) and the Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) trust fund. The main provider of income to the HI fund, which pays for Medicare Part A, is the payroll taxes paid by employers and employees. Medicare Part B and D are funded by general revenues and monthly premiums. In addition to all the previous provisions addressing Medicare’s financial issues, there is another precautionary step being taken. The PPACA has a provision to establish an Independent Payment Advisory Board with the goal of decreasing Medicare spending. B. Impacts on Physicians The PPACA and HCERA make various changes to the Medicare program, which in turn affects physicians and how they practice. Some of these provisions have clear consequences, such as immediately changing physician reimbursement, while others have indirect influences on how physicians may practice in the  future by modifying the incentives to improve the delivery and quality of care. PPACA broadens the Medicare Physician Quality and Reporting Initiative (PQRI) incentive payments though 2014 and administers a penalty for those who fail to report quality measures starting in 2015. It also supplies for a further bonus to physicians who meet the requirements of an assessment program, such as the Maintenance of Certification Program, while penalizes the physicians who fail to meet those standards in the future. Under Section 3002 of Title III, Medicare claims data will be used to provide reports to physicians that measure resources used to provide care for Medicare beneficiaries. Under Section 3007 of Title III, the Secretary of HHS is obliged to create and administer a separate payment modifier to the Medicare physician fee schedule. This payment should be based on the relative cost and quality of the care provided by physicians. The quality of care should be assessed based on risk-adjusted measure of quality determined by the Secretary. Costs are also assessed based on measures determined by the Secretary. Risk factors such as ethnicity, demographic, socioeconomic characteristics, and health status should be taken into account. By January 1, 2012 these explicit measures of cost and quality, along with implementation dates of the adjusted payments should be published. III. Regulations Implementation With such significant changes and provisions being made, there should be a way to keep track of how each is being regulated and implemented. I will discuss the regulations, time limits, and effective dates on how each are being done so by year. The first changes of 2010 start with Medicare provider rates. This includes reductions in the annual market basket updates for hospital services. Currently, there have been productivity adjustments added to market basket update in 2012. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) have issued these updates for varying provider types starting in August 2010. The  implementation of the Medicare Beneficiary drug rebate, which supplies a $250 rebate to those in the Part D coverage gap, started January 1, 2010. In May 2010, the CMS published a brochure containing information about the coverage gap in Medicare Part D. As of March 22, 2011, about 3.8 million people have received the $250 rebate (HHS, 2011). As for closing the Medicare drug coverage gap, on December 17, 2010 CMS sent a letter to pharmaceutical companies addressing guidelines to the Medicare Coverage Gap Discount Program. This program became effective on January 1, 2011. Moving onto provisions implemented in 2011, Medicare payments for primary care will provide a 10% bonus payment for services. It will also provide the same bonus to general surgeons working in areas with a shortage of health professionals. This is being implemented starting in January 1, 2011 through December 2015. As for the MA payment changes, they will restructure payment to private plans and prohibit higher cost-sharing requirements. This has been in effect since January 1, 2011. The CMS issued a notice to MA plans in April 2010 addressing the freeze in 2011 payment rates at 2010 levels. A Medicare Independent Payment Advisory Board made up of 15 individuals to arrange proposals and recommendations to decrease the per capita rate of growth in spending if it exceeds targeted rates was planned to be established. On October 1, 2011, funding was made available and the first proposals are due January 15, 2014. In 2012, the second part of the MA plan payments, which reduce rebates paid and provide bonuses to high quality plans, went into effect on January 1, 2012. On February 28, 2012 the CMS sent out a letter to MA plans addressing the payment rates for 2012. Fraud and abuse prevention was also implemented on January 1, 2012. It establishes procedures for screening and reporting those who participate in Medicare. On March 23, 2011 CMS issued a notice addressing the fee that providers would have to pay to fund the screenings. Later on in the year, on October 1, 2012 Medicare value based purchasing was put into effect. This creates a program to pay hospitals based on their quality of performance. This coming year in 2013, there will be a few provisions to come into effect  starting off the new year. On January 1, 2013 the Medicare tax increase (increases the Medicare Part A tax rate on wages by 0.9% on incomes of $200,000), Medicare bundle payment pilot program (program to create and assess payments for certain services), and the latter part of the prescription drug coverage gap (reducing coinsurance) will be put into effect. As for 2014, the last of the Medicare provisions will be implemented. The Medicare Advantage plan loss ratios are mandated to be no less than 85%; this will begin at the start of the year on January 1, 2014. The second implementation for that year will be Medicare payments for hospital-acquired infections; it will decrease payments to those hospitals for their hospital-aquired conditions by 1% and this process will continue onto 2015. IV. Cases Challenging PPACA When the PPACA and HCERA were signed into law, many people opposed and sued claiming that the reform was unconstitutional for a number of reasons. The most controversial was the mandate that require most citizens to obtain health insurance coverage, and if failing to do so would have to pay a penalty in the form of an individual tax. Another debated provision was the expansion of the Medicaid program to cover even more individuals, such as those with low income. All of these separate cases were then merged into a single case, The National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, 567 U.S. (2012). When ruled, it was a momentous Supreme Court decision in which the Court maintained Congress’s authority to enact the provisions of the Affordable Care Act and the Reconciliation Act. In December 2011, it was announced that there would be a 6 hour oral argumentation heard by the Court over a time span of three days beginning on March 26, 2012 and ending on March 28, 2012 discussing varying debatable topics of these provisions. By a vote of 5 to 4, the Court maintained the Individual Mandate aspect of the PPACA as a binding exercise of Congress’s authority to lay and collect taxes. The critical characterization of this financial penalty as a tax is what passed the mandate as constitutional. Preceding this landmark case there were many previous hearings held, all  having similar conflicting opinions. The Eleventh Circuit was also dealing with arguments in relative cases challenging PPACA. While it was assumed that the Fourth Circuit, which had heard oral arguments before the Eleventh Circuit, would issue a decision on PPACA first, the Eleventh Circuit was actually the second to issue its opinion, on August 12, 2011. In Florida ex rel. Bondi v. U.S. Department of Health Human Services (2011) the plaintiffs of the case were two private individuals, the National Federation of Independent Business, and 26 individual states. The Eleventh Circuit then published a 300-plus page opinion finding by a 2:1 majority that the Individual Mandate (requiring health insurance coverage) is unconstitutional, and thus created a split of authority between the two Circuits. The Eleventh Circuit heard this appeal from the United States District Court for the Northern District of Florida, which saw the Individual Mandate to be an unconstitutional exercise of Congress’s authority. The district court also found that the Individual Mandate was not applicable to the rest of the PPACA, meaning that the whole act was invalid. The plaintiffs in the district court case also debated that the PPACA’s expansion of Medicaid was unconstitutional, but the district court granted the government judgment on that issue and the Eleventh Circuit agreed to that court’s decision. These two cases show how divided opinions can be and how difficult it was and is to pass a health reform law. Opinions are still divided, concerning many aspects such as the Medicaid expansion, the Commerce Clause, and the Necessary and Proper Clause. On the issue of Medicaid expansion, no one, single opinion had the support of the majority of the Justices. Also, on the issue of if the Individual Mandate was within the authority of Congress under the Commerce Clause and the Necessary and Proper Clause, again there was no single opinion that was supported by the majority of the Court. Despite all these controversies, and even though the act has passed, there are still those who are continuing to pursue litigation in order to repeal and defeat the PPACA. V. Conclusion Medicare spending has been increasing much more rapidly compared to the general economy, and this definitely raises concerns about Medicare’s  long-term sustainability. The provisions in the Affordable Care Act and the Reconciliation Act were established to decrease Medicare program costs by about $390 billion over the following 10 years through modifications in payments to various providers, by leveling payment rates between fee-for-service Medicare and Medicare Advantage, and by boosting efficiencies of how health services are delivered and paid for. Overall, the PPACA and HCERA are momentous pieces of legislation that will restructure the future of the U.S. health care system. It is still unclear of how well these provisions have been implemented, with some still having yet to be so. The main concern is probably how well costs will be contained or reduced. With all of these new taxes, hopefully the reform will actually reduce the federal deficit over the next ten years that these provisions are being implemented. There is still much work to be done within the next few years, to see how this reform works out. Many people are glad that it has passed and support this reform as well as encourage it to be expanded, while others oppose the reform arguing that it creates too much government involvement in the issue. But since it has passed and is enacted in the present, people should make use of what is being provided. Some are not even aware of the changes in the health care industry and are oblivious to how they are being affected. That is why it is important to stay informed and make decisions, after all this is what directly affects your future. References CRS Analysis of CBO (March 20, 2010). Estimates of the effects of PPACA and the Reconciliation Act combined. Congressional Budget Office. Retrieved October 31, 2012 from: Barrett, Paul M. (June 28, 2012). Supreme Court Supports Obamacare, Bolsters Obama. Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved November 3, 2012 from: Congressional Budget Office (March 2009). An Analysis of Health Insurance Premiums Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Letter to the Honorable Evan Bayh. Congressional Budget Office, Washington, DC. Retrieved November 3, 2012 from: Kaizer, J. (2010). Implementation Timeline. Health Reform Source. Retrieved November 5, 2012 from: Hilgers, David W. (February 2012) Physicians post-PPACA: not going bust at the healthcare buffet. The Health Lawyer, Vol. 24. Retrieved November 4, 2012 from: Pozgar, George D. (2009). Legal essentials of health care administration. Missisauga, Ontario: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Michael Brown. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, Secretary of Health Human Services 567 U.S. (2012) No. 11-393 Argued March 26-28, 2012 – Decided June 28, 2012 Florida ex rel. Bondi v. U.S. Department of Health a Human Services, 780 F.Supp. 2d. 1256 (N.D. Fla. 2011), order clarified by 780 F.Supp. 2d. 1307. (N.D. Fla. 2011).

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Power of Critical Theory for Adult Learning and Teaching

Power of Critical Theory for Adult Learning and Teaching Unmasking Power Stephen Brookfield in the Power of Critical Theory for Adult Learning and Teaching, OUP Maidenhead 2005 Brookfields chapter on the unmasking of power leads him immediately to consideration of the French theorist, Michel Foucault, by whom he was first introduced to the concept of regimes of truth: the types of discourse which it (society) accepts and makes function as true (Foucault).   Regimes of truth operate to lull teachers into believing they are operating in a power free setting.   Brookfield uses Foucaults description of power to explore the paradox that apparently emancipatory adult education practices can contain oppressive dimensions. Brookfield rebrands Foucault as a critical theorist on two grounds, firstly that he focuses, in a Marxian fashion, on how existing power relations reproduce themselves and secondly, that he is self-critical about his own theoretical formulations of power.   I quote Marx without saying so. (Foucault).   However, Foucault did not see power only as being imposed from above by a dominant elite.   Using the analogy of the connections made by synapses, power is seen as flowing throughout the social body.   We are all implicated in the exercise of power, even we do not believe we possess it. Fundamental to Foucaults analysis of power is the idea of disciplinary power which is malevolently attentive to our every move and which is constantly exercised by means of surveillance exemplified by a panopticon. Brookfield balances this analysis of power with what Foucault sees as its necessary corollary, resistance.   Like power, resistance can be found in multiple places and can be integrated in global strategies.   One example given of this is how oppositional groups can use the internet to organise effectively.   Foucault himself was deeply involved in contravening the status quo because he believed in essence that theory is practice. Looking at the world we now inhabit, it is clear that the all-seeing operation control centres in new prisons are replicated in many other areas of our lives including education, social services and workplaces.   Foucaults concept that surveillance is permanent in its effects, even if it is discontinuous in its action, strikes a very sombre chord, particularly as we are voluntarily submitting ourselves, more and more, to such surveillance through the use of social media.   Images and comments from decades ago can be retrieved with ease.   We may have moved on, but what we did or said is frozen in time, ready to be immediately defrosted at a touch of a search button.   Within education, opportunities for asynchronous learning through virtual learning environments can in fact be perfect weapons of surveillance used to assess the apparent engagement of the learner with the materials provided. The idea that we can derive pleasure from disciplining ourselves is disturbing, but it rings true.   Brookfield makes an association between this and Gramscis notion of most peoples willingness happily to embrace ideas, value and interests which actually work against our freedom. Brookfield applies Foucaults ideas across a number of staple items in the adult educators toolkit: learning journals, learning contracts and discussion groups, and shows how such techniques, which we adopt unquestioningly, can inadvertently reinforce the discriminatory practices we seek to challenge. The effect of disciplinary power on education resonated with me.   Far from the mutuality that pervades the relationship of a voluntary tutor with a 1:1 student or the collaborative learning in small groups, the drive for perpetual assessment and indicative content of courses drives tutors to assign individual projects so that collaborative projects are seen as a plagiaristic diversion of the intellectually weak.   Similarly the discrete tests which make up the awards system serve technological rather than educational ends.   That simply is not the way learning happens. Brookfields example of changing seating practices made an impression on me.   Despite the unquestioning belief on the part of many adult educators that it has an equalising effect, in fact such actions do not magically do away with power, but rather displace it and reconfigure it.   Circular seating can be intimidating, too open and too exposed and thus not necessarily less oppressive. Word count: 653

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Angel in the House Essay -- essays research papers

Coventry Patmore believed his wife Emily was the perfect Victorian wife and wrote "The Angel in the House" about her. Though it did not receive much attention when it was first published in 1854, it became increasingly popular through the rest of the nineteenth century and continued to be influential into the twentieth century. The Little House series reflects what Patmore originally wrote and strongly believed. â€Å"The Angel in the House† theme is both introduced and intertwined throughout the series. It begins in The Little House in the Big Woods and continues to reveal itself throughout The Little House in the Prairie, thus giving to audience a view of nineteenth century culture. Patmore wrote that â€Å"Man must be pleased; but him to please is woman's pleasure.† This common concept of the nineteenth century reveals itself in this stanza. Women held one position in society, and it held constant throughout the eighteen hundreds: Please man. Ma, in The Little House series, is a prime example of the â€Å"Angel in the House.† Ma is always there for Pa. She realizes that he provides and she obeys. Ma, in The Little House in the Big Woods, had a schedule for each week. .She washed on Monday, Ironed on Tuesday, Mended on Wednesday, Churned on Thursday, Cleaned on Friday, and Baked on Saturday. On top of those chores, Ma prepared food and tended to Pa and the children. There wasn’t a day for Ma’s needs and desires. Ma presents herself as the stereotyp...

Friday, October 11, 2019

The Vampire Diaries: Dark Reunion Chapter Thirteen

June 19, Friday, 11:45 p.m. Dear Diary, Oh, God, what are we going to do? This has been the longest week of my life. Today was the last day of school and tomorrow Stefan is leaving. He's going to Europe to search for a vampire who got changed by Klaus. He says he doesn't want to leave us unprotected. But he's going to go. We can't find Tyler. His car disappeared from the cemetery, but he hasn't turned up at school. He's missed every final this week. Not that the rest of us are doing much better. I wish Robert E. Lee was like the schools that have all their finals before graduation. I don't know whether I'm writing English or Swahili these days. I hate Klaus. From what I saw he's as crazy as Katherine-and even crueler. What he did to Vickie-but I can't even talk about that or I'll start crying again. He was just playing with us at Caroline's party, like a cat with a mouse. And to do it on Meredith's birthday, too-although I suppose he couldn't have known that. He seems to know a lot, though. He doesn't talk like a foreigner, not like Stefan did when he first came to America, and he knows all about American things, even songs from the fifties. Maybe he's been over here for a while†¦ Bonnie stopped writing. She thought desperately. All this time, they had been thinking of victims in Europe, of vampires. But from the way Klaus talked, he had obviously been in America a long time. He didn't sound foreign at all. And he'd chosen to attack the girls on Meredith's birthday†¦ Bonnie got up, reached for the telephone, and called Meredith's number. A sleepy male voice answered. â€Å"Mr. Sulez, this is Bonnie. Can I speak to Meredith?† â€Å"Bonnie! Don't you know what time it is?† â€Å"Yes.† Bonnie thought quickly. â€Å"But it's about-about a final we had today. Please, I have to talk with her.† There was a long pause, then a heavy sigh. â€Å"Just a minute.† Bonnie tapped her fingers impatiently as she waited. At last there was the click of another phone being picked up. â€Å"Bonnie?† came Meredith's voice. â€Å"What's wrong?† â€Å"Nothing. I mean-† Bonnie was excruciatingly conscious of the open line, of the fact that Meredith's father hadn't hung up. He might be listening. â€Å"It's about-that German problem we've been working on. You remember. The one we couldn't figure out for the final. You know how we've been looking for the one person who can help us solve it? Well, I think I know who it is.† â€Å"No,† Bonnie said, â€Å"it doesn't. It hits a lot closer to home, Meredith. A lot. In fact, you could say it's right in your own backyard, hanging on your family tree.† The line was silent so long Bonnie wondered if Meredith was still there. â€Å"Meredith?† â€Å"I'm thinking. Does this solution have anything to do with coincidence?† â€Å"Nope.† Bonnie relaxed and smiled slightly, grimly. Meredith had it now. â€Å"Not a thing to do with coincidence. It's more a case of history repeating itself. Deliberately repeating itself, if you see what I mean.† â€Å"Yes,† Meredith said. She sounded as if she were recovering from a shock, and no wonder. â€Å"You know, I think you just may be right. But there's still the matter of persuading-this person-to actually help us.† â€Å"You think that may be a problem?† â€Å"I think it could. Sometimes people get very rattled-about a test. Sometimes they even kind of lose their minds.† Bonnie's heart sank. This was something that hadn't occurred to her. What if he couldn't tell them? What if he were that far gone? â€Å"All we can do is try,† she said, making her voice as optimistic as possible. â€Å"Tomorrow we'll have to try.† â€Å"All right. I'll pick you up at noon. Good night, Bonnie.† â€Å"Night, Meredith.† Bonnie added, â€Å"I'm sorry.† â€Å"No, I think it may be for the best. So that history doesn't continue to repeat itself forever. Good-bye.† Bonnie pressed the disconnect button on the handset, clicking it off. Then she just sat for a few minutes, her finger on the button, staring at the wall. Finally she replaced the handset in its cradle and picked up her diary again. She put a period on the last sentence and added a new one. We are going to see Meredith's grandfather tomorrow. â€Å"I'm an idiot,† Stefan said in Meredith's car the next day. They were going to West Virginia, to the institution where Meredith's grandfather was a patient. It was going to be a fairly long drive. â€Å"We're all idiots. Except Bonnie,† Matt said. Even in the midst of her anxiety Bonnie felt a warm glow at that. But Meredith was shaking her head, eyes on the road. â€Å"Stefan, you couldn't have realized, so stop beating up on yourself. You didn't know that Klaus attacked Caroline's party on the anniversary of the attack on my grandfather. And it didn't occur to Matt or me that Klaus could have been in America for so long because we never saw Klaus or heard him speak. We were thinking of people he could have attacked in Europe. Really, Bonnie was the only one who could have put it all together, because she had all the information.† â€Å"I won't; modesty is one of my most charming qualities,† Bonnie replied. Matt snorted, but then he said, â€Å"I still think it was pretty smart,† which started the glow all over again. The institution was a terrible place. Bonnie tried as hard as she could to conceal her horror and disgust, but she knew Meredith could sense it. Meredith's shoulders were stiff with defensive pride as she walked down the halls in front of them. Bonnie, who had known her for so many years, could see the humiliation underneath that pride. Meredith's parents considered her grandfather's condition such a blot that they never allowed him to be mentioned to outsiders. It had been a shadow over the entire family. And now Meredith was showing that secret to strangers for the first time. Bonnie felt a rush of love and admiration for her friend. It was so like Meredith to do it without fuss, with dignity, letting nobody see what it cost her. But the institution was still terrible. It wasn't filthy or filled with raving maniacs or anything like that. The patients looked clean and well cared for. But there was something about the sterile hospital smells and the halls crowded with motionless wheelchairs and blank eyes that made Bonnie want to run. It was like a building full of zombies. Bonnie saw one old woman, her pink scalp showing through thin white hair, slumped with her head on the table next to a naked plastic doll. When Bonnie reached out desperately, she found Matt's hand already reaching for hers. They followed Meredith that way, holding on so hard it hurt. â€Å"This is his room.† Inside was another zombie, this one with white hair that still showed an occasional fleck of black like Meredith's. His face was a mass of wrinkles and lines, the eyes rheumy and rimmed with scarlet. They stared vacantly. â€Å"Granddad,† Meredith said, kneeling in front of his wheelchair, â€Å"Granddad, it's me, Meredith. I've come to visit you. I've got something important to ask you.† The old eyes never flickered. â€Å"Sometimes he knows us,† Meredith said quietly, without emotion. â€Å"But mostly these days he doesn't.† The old man just went on staring. Stefan dropped to his heels. â€Å"Let me try,† he said. Looking into the wrinkled face he began to speak, softly, soothingly, as he had to Vickie. And no matter what Meredith or Stefan did, that was all the response they could elicit. Eventually Bonnie tried, using her psychic powers. She could sense something in the old man, some spark of life trapped in the imprisoning flesh. But she couldn't reach it. â€Å"I'm sorry,† she said, sitting back and pushing hair out of her eyes. â€Å"It's no use. I can't do anything.† â€Å"Maybe we can come another time,† Matt said, but Bonnie knew it wasn't true. Stefan was leaving tomorrow; there would never be another time. And it had seemed like such a good idea†¦ The glow that had warmed her earlier was ashes now, and her heart felt like a lump of lead. She turned away to see Stefan already starting out of the room. Matt put a hand under her elbow to help her up and guide her out. And after standing for a minute with her head bent in discouragement, Bonnie let him. It was hard to summon up enough energy to put one foot in front of the other. She glanced back dully to see whether Meredith was following- And screamed. Meredith was standing in the center of the room, facing the door, discouragement written on her face. But behind her, the figure in the wheelchair had stirred at last. In a silent explosion of movement, it had reared above her, the rheumy old eyes open wide and the mouth open wider. Meredith's grandfather looked as if he had been caught in the act of leaping-arms flung out, mouth forming a silent howl. Bonnie's screams rang from the rafters. Everything happened at once then. Stefan came charging back in, Meredith spun around, Matt grabbed for her. But the old figure didn't leap. He stood towering above all of them, staring over their heads, seeming to see something none of them could. Sounds were coming from his mouth at last, sounds that formed one ululating word. â€Å"Vampire! Vampiire!† Attendants were in the room, crowding Bonnie and the others away, restraining the old man. Their shouts added to the pandemonium. â€Å"Vampire! Vampire!† Meredith's grandfather caterwauled, as if warning the town. Bonnie felt panicked-was he looking at Stefan? Was it an accusation? â€Å"Please, you'll have to leave now. I'm sorry, but you'll have to go,† a nurse was saying. They were being whisked out. Meredith fought as she was forced out into the hall. â€Å"Granddaddy-!† And then: â€Å"White ash wood! Vampire! White ash wood-â€Å" The door slammed shut. Meredith gasped, fighting tears. Bonnie had her nails dug into Matt's arm. Stefan turned to them, green eyes wide with shock. â€Å"I said, you'll have to leave now,† the harassed nurse was repeating impatiently. The four of them ignored her. They were all looking at each other, stunned confusion giving way to realization in their faces. â€Å"Tyler said there was only one kind of wood that could hurt him-† Matt began. â€Å"White ash wood,† said Stefan. â€Å"We'll have to find out where he's hiding,† Stefan said on the way home. He was driving, since Meredith had dropped the keys at the car door. â€Å"That's the first thing. If we rush this, we could warn him off.† His green eyes were shining with a queer mixture of triumph and grim determination, and he spoke in a clipped and rapid voice. They were all on the ragged edge, Bonnie thought, as if they'd been gulping uppers all night. Their nerves were frayed so thin that anything could happen. She had a sense, too, of impending cataclysm. As if everything were coming to a head, all the events since Meredith's birthday party gathering to a conclusion. Tonight, she thought. Tonight it all happens. It seemed strangely appropriate that it should be the eve of the solstice. â€Å"The eve of what?† Matt said. She hadn't even realized she'd spoken aloud. â€Å"The eve of the solstice,† she said. â€Å"That's what today is. The day before the summer solstice.† â€Å"Don't tell me. Druids, right?† â€Å"They celebrated it,† Bonnie confirmed. â€Å"It's a day for magic, for marking the change of the seasons. And†¦Ã¢â‚¬  she hesitated. â€Å"Well, it's like all other feast days, like Halloween or the winter solstice. A day when the line between the visible world and the invisible world is thin. When you can see ghosts, they used to say. When things happen.† â€Å"Things,† Stefan said, turning onto the main highway that headed back toward Fell's Church, â€Å"are going to happen.† None of them realized how soon. Mrs. Flowers was in the back garden. They had driven straight to the boarding house to look for her. She was pruning rosebushes, and the smell of summer surrounded her. â€Å"Slow down, slow down now,† she said, peering at them from under the brim of her straw hat. â€Å"What is it you want? White ash? There's one just down beyond those oak trees in back. Now, wait a minute-† she added as they all scrambled off again. Stefan ringed a branch of the tree with a jack-knife Matt produced from his pocket. I wonder when he started carrying that? Bonnie thought. She also wondered what Mrs. Flowers thought of them as they came back, the two boys carrying the leafy six-foot bough between them on their shoulders. But Mrs. Flowers just looked without saying anything. As they neared the house, though, she called after them, â€Å"A package came for you, boy.† Stefan turned his head, the branch still on his shoulder. â€Å"For me?† â€Å"It had your name on it. A package and a letter. I found them on the front porch this afternoon. I put them upstairs in your room.† Bonnie looked at Meredith, then at Matt and Stefan, meeting their bewildered, suspicious gazes in turn. The anticipation in the air heightened suddenly, almost unbearably. â€Å"But who could it be from? Who could even know you're here-† she began as they climbed the stairs to the attic. And then she stopped, dread fluttering between her ribs. Premonition was buzzing around inside her like a nagging fly, but she pushed it away. Not now, she thought, not now. But there was no way to keep from seeing the package on Stefan's desk. The boys propped the white ash branch against the wall and went to look at it, a longish, flattish parcel wrapped in brown paper, with a creamy envelope on top. On the front, in familiar crazy handwriting, was scrawled Stefan. The handwriting from the mirror. They all stood staring down at the package as if it were a scorpion. â€Å"Watch out,† Meredith said as Stefan slowly reached for it. Bonnie knew what she meant. She felt as if the whole thing might explode or belch poisonous gas or turn into something with teeth and claws. The envelope Stefan picked up was square and sturdy, made of good paper with a fine finish. Like a prince's invitation to the ball, Bonnie thought. But incongruously, there were several dirty fingerprints on the surface and the edges were grimy. Well- Klaus hadn't looked any too clean in the dream. Stefan glanced at front and back and then tore the envelope open. He pulled out a single piece of heavy stationery. The other three crowded around, looking over his shoulder as he unfolded it. Then Matt gave an exclamation. â€Å"What the†¦ it's blank!† It was. On both sides. Stefan turned it over and examined each. His face was tense, shuttered. Everyone else relaxed, though, making noises of disgust. A stupid practical joke. Meredith had reached for the package, which looked flat enough to be empty as well, when Stefan suddenly stiffened, his breath hissing in. Bonnie glanced quickly over and jumped. Meredith's hand froze on the package, and Matt swore. Stefan- Shall we try to solve this like gentlemen? I have the girl. Come to the old farmhouse in the woods after dark and we'll talk, just the two of us. Come alone and I'll let her go. Bring anyone else and she dies. There was no signature, but at the bottom the words appeared This is between you and me. â€Å"What girl?† Matt was demanding, looking from Bonnie to Meredith as if to make sure they were still there. â€Å"What girl?† With a sharp motion, Meredith's elegant fingers tore the package open and pulled out what was inside. A pale green scarf with a pattern of vines and leaves. Bonnie remembered it perfectly, and a vision came to her in a rush. Confetti and birthday presents, orchids and chocolate. â€Å"Caroline,† she whispered, and shut her eyes. These last two weeks had been so strange, so different from ordinary high school life, that she had almost forgotten Caroline existed. Caroline had gone off to an apartment in another town to escape, to be safe-but Meredith had said it to her in the beginning. He can follow you to Heron, I'm sure. â€Å"He was just playing with us again,† Bonnie murmured. â€Å"He let us get this far, even going to see your grandfather, Meredith, and then†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"He must have known,† Meredith agreed. â€Å"He must have known all along we were looking for a victim. And now he's checkmated us. Unless-† Her dark eyes lit with sudden hope. â€Å"Bonnie, you don't think Caroline could have dropped this scarf the night of the party? And that he just picked it up?† â€Å"No.† The premonition was buzzing closer and Bonnie swatted at it, trying to keep it away. She didn't want it, didn't want to know. But she felt certain of one thing: this wasn't a bluff. Klaus had Caroline. â€Å"What are we going to do?† she said softly. â€Å"I know what we're not going to do, and that's listen to him,† Matt said. † ‘Try to solve it like gentlemen'-he's scum, not a gentleman. It's a trap.† â€Å"Of course it's a trap,† Meredith said impatiently. â€Å"He waited until we found out how to hurt him and now he's trying to separate us. But it won't work!† Bonnie had been watching Stefan's face with growing dismay. Because while Matt and Meredith were indignantly talking, he had been quietly folding up the letter and putting it back in its envelope. Now he stood gazing down at it, his face still, untouched by anything that was going on around him. And the look in his green eyes scared Bonnie. â€Å"I think,† said Stefan carefully, concentrating on each word, â€Å"that I am going out to the woods after dark.† Matt nodded, and like the quarterback he was, began to chart out a plan. â€Å"Okay, you go distract him. And meanwhile, the three of us-â€Å" â€Å"The three of you,† Stefan continued just as deliberately, looking right at him, â€Å"are going home. To bed.† There was a pause that seemed endless to Bonnie's taut nerves. The others just stared at Stefan. At last Meredith said lightly, â€Å"Well, it's going to be hard to catch him while we're in bed unless he's kind enough to come visiting.† That broke the tension and Matt said, drawing a long-suffering breath, â€Å"All right, Stefan, I understand how you feel about this-† But Stefan interrupted. â€Å"I'm dead serious, Matt. Klaus is right; this is between him and me. And he says to come alone or he'll hurt Caroline. So I'm going alone. It's my decision.† â€Å"It's your funeral,† Bonnie blurted out, almost hysterically. â€Å"Stefan, you're crazy. You can't.† â€Å"Watch me.† â€Å"We won't let you-â€Å" â€Å"Do you think,† Stefan said, looking at her, â€Å"that you could stop me if you tried?† This silence was acutely uncomfortable. Staring at him, Bonnie felt as if Stefan had changed somehow before her eyes. His face seemed sharper, his posture different, as if to remind her of the lithe, hard predator's muscles under his clothes. All at once he seemed distant, alien. Frightening. Bonnie looked away. â€Å"Let's be reasonable about this,† Matt was saying, changing tactics. â€Å"Let's just stay calm and talk this over-â€Å" â€Å"There's nothing to talk over. I'm going. You're not.† â€Å"You owe us more than that, Stefan,† Meredith said, and Bonnie felt grateful for her cool voice. â€Å"Okay, so you can tear us all limb from limb; fine, no argument. We get the point. But after all we've been through together, we deserve more of a thorough discussion before you go running off.† â€Å"You said it was the girls' fight too,† Matt added. â€Å"When did you decide it wasn't?† â€Å"No, it isn't!† Bonnie cried. â€Å"Did you make Elena kill Katherine?† â€Å"I made Katherine go back to Klaus! That's how this got started. And I got Caroline involved; if it wasn't for me, she would never have hated Elena, never have gotten in with Tyler. I have a responsibility toward her.† â€Å"You just want to believe that,† Bonnie almost yelled. â€Å"Klaus hates all of us! Do you really think he's going to let you walk out of there? Do you think he plans to leave the rest of us alone?† â€Å"No,† Stefan said, and picked up the branch leaning against the wall. He took Matt's knife out of his own pocket and began to strip the twigs off, making it into a straight white spear. â€Å"Oh, great, you're going off for single combat!† Matt said, furious. â€Å"Don't you see how stupid that is? You're walking right into his trap!† He advanced a step on Stefan. â€Å"You may not think that the three of us can stop you-â€Å" â€Å"No, Matt.† Meredith's low, level voice cut across the room. â€Å"It won't do any good.† Stefan looked at her, the muscles around his eyes hardening, but she just looked back, her face set and calm. â€Å"So you're determined to meet Klaus face to face, Stefan. All right. But before you go, at least be sure you have a fighting chance.† Coolly, she began to unbutton the neck of her tailored blouse. Bonnie felt a jolt, even though she'd offered the same thing only a week earlier. But that had been in private, for God's sake, she thought. Then she shrugged. Public or private, what difference did it make? She looked at Matt, whose face reflected his consternation. Then she saw Matt's brow crease and the beginning of that stubborn, bullheaded expression that used to terrify the coaches of op-posing football teams. His blue eyes turned to hers and she nodded, thrusting out her chin. Without a word, she unzipped the light wind-breaker she was wearing and Matt pulled off his T-shirt. Stefan stared from one to another of the three people grimly disrobing in his room, trying to conceal his own shock. But he shook his head, the white spear in front of him like a weapon. â€Å"No.† â€Å"Don't be a jerk, Stefan,† Matt snapped. Even in the confusion of this terrible moment something inside Bonnie paused to admire his bare chest. â€Å"There's three of us. You should be able to take plenty without hurting any one of us.† â€Å"I said, no! Not for revenge, and not to fight evil with evil! Not for any reason. I thought you would understand that.† Stefan's look at Matt was bitter. â€Å"I understand that you're going to die out there!† Matt shouted. â€Å"He's right!† Bonnie pressed her knuckles against her lips. The premonition was getting through her defenses. She didn't want to let it in, but she didn't have the strength to resist anymore. With a shudder, she felt it stab through and heard the words in her mind. For a moment, just a moment, she thought he might listen to her. Then his face went hard again and he spoke coldly. â€Å"It isn't your problem. Let me worry about it.† â€Å"But if there's no way to win-† Matt began. â€Å"That isn't what Bonnie said!† Stefan replied tersely. â€Å"Yes, it is! What the hell are you talking about?† Matt shouted. It was hard to make Matt lose his temper, but once lost it wasn't easily gotten back. â€Å"Stefan, I've had enough-â€Å" â€Å"And so have I!† Stefan shot back in a roar. In a tone Bonnie had never heard him use before. â€Å"I'm sick of you all, sick of your bickering and your spinelessness-and your premonitions, too! This is my problem.† â€Å"I thought we were a team-† Matt cried. â€Å"We are not a team. You are a bunch of stupid humans! Even with everything that's happened to you, deep down you just want to live your safe little lives in your safe little houses until you go to your safe little graves! I'm nothing like you and I don't want to be! I've put up with you this long because I had to, but this is the end.† He looked at each of them and spoke deliberately, emphasizing each word. â€Å"I don't need any of you. I don't want you with me, and I don't want you following me. You'll only spoil my strategy. Anyone who does follow me, I'll kill.† And with one last smoldering glance, he turned on his heel and walked out.